L'ensemble des informations médicales, fiscales, familiales des citoyens estoniens sont rattachées à un identifiant unique, simplifiant drastiquement la vie quotidienne de chacun d'entre eux.
S'il convient d'accéder en urgence au dossier médical d'un usager victime d'un accident de la route inconscient, et donc incapable de donner son consentement, un superviseur assermenté en donnera l'autorisation aux services de secours, et seulement à eux. Les éventuels abus de fonctionnaires indélicats sont lourdement sanctionnés, et font d'ailleurs régulièrement l'objet de condamnations au travers d'un tribunal spécialement constitué pour cela.
En outre, le système a été conçu de sorte à ce qu'il soit impossible d'accéder de façon simultanée à un grand nombre de dossiers afin de limiter les risques de piratage. En face, les opportunités s'expriment sur de nombreux axes : réduire les coûts de transaction, de sorte à permettre de nouvelles catégories de services : embarquer dans un avion, rentrer dans un musée sans faire la queue, utiliser des transports de façon multimodale train, vélo… sans nécessairement s'être abonné à chaque service, supprimer les reçus et notes de frais en papier et en faciliter la gestion.
Cela permet aussi d'accroître très significativement la productivité administrative en facilitant l'automatisation des traitements de dossiers : il n'est plus nécessaire de ressaisir sans cesse date et lieu de naissance. Au-delà, l'identité électronique permet d'envisager de nouvelles formes d'actions publiques au sein desquelles les services deviennent personnalisés : prioriser l'accès à certains services publics aux publics précaires par exemple, mettre en oeuvre des analyses épidémiologiques de qualité….
Certes les risques existent, mais pour autant, le Danemark, la Suède ou l'Estonie ne semblent pas avoir versé dans la dictature ; leurs citoyens y sont unanimement attachés tant cela leur simplifie la vie. Repousser son adoption reviendrait à affaiblir la souveraineté de l'Etat, en laissant toute la place pour agir aux plates-formes digitales privées, américaines, ou même chinoises. Thank you Patrick. Identification is something that definitely digital technologies can help with.
This is also a topic subject to some concerns. I would like to invite participants to share solutions regarding some associated challenges to electronic identification, such as privacy and data security to avoid identity fraud. With regards to identification in terms of privacy and security to prevent digital fraud, what is measured can be managed. Only the basic information will be applicable. We use a peer-to-peer feedback system to help maintain the integrity of the data.
Un rapport de l'Institut Montaigne souligne le manque de compétences de nos représentants à l'Assemblée Nationale. Il en va peut-être de même pour les représentants politiques des pays en voie de développement.
Le développement numérique fait partie intégrante des réformes politiques, économiques et administratives entreprises au cours des 25 dernières années en Estonie. Les solutions électroniques simplifient la gouvernance de l'État, rendent les services plus accessibles à la population et améliorent la transparence du processus décisionnel.
En Estonie, les documents sur les projets de loi, les traités et les questions administratives sont saisis, puis signés numériquement. Cela rend le processus numérique du début à la fin. Ceci devrait permettre de sensibiliser un maximum de parlementaires aux bouleversements engendrés par la révolution numérique qui impacte tous les aspects de notre vie. Un autre impact positif de ce mode de fonctionnement serait une plus grande transparence de la vie politique vis-à-vis des populations.
Cette task force pourrait être épaulée par une autre task force qui aiderait ces pays à simplifier leurs procédures avant de les digitaliser.
Usuario:Lyssettte López/Espacio Schengen
La digitalisation de la chaîne administrative peut être la clé qui réduira drastiquement beaucoup de freins au développement des économies émergentes, et contribuera certainement dans la même mesure à la réduction de la corruption. It will be prolific when climate activist educates people and share their initiatives on social media platforms. People want to see the outcomes of the actions taken by the activist in their areas, regions or country.
When people see actionable items, which can be easily managed and initiate at affordable cost, I believe people would like to use sustainable products and will realize the importance of climate action.
Thank you for the comment. Sharing successful stories and tangible impacts, plus a call for action is a good way to engage with people. Would you mind to share examples of platforms you may know which are doing this? I am happy to join as a moderator for this global discussion, along with my colleague Martin.
To make the discussion easier and as insightful as possible for everyone, we invite you to:. I focus on the programmes for youth entrepreneurs: incubation, acceleration programmes and coworking spaces, as well as 21st century skill programmes. I worked with several entrepreneurs using technology to address the SDGs, so I'm super interested in this topic!
I want to address the first question: my main concern is that while digital technologies can accelerate the implementation of the SDGs, more and more complex technologies also have a significant carbon footprint e.
Furthermore, these issues are well known to the public my assumption. I wonder how can all stakeholders take this into consideration? Thank you Dinh-Long for introducing yourself and for your comment on addressing the first question.
Do you have any solution you want to share on how to reduce the carbon footprint or social impact from data centers or technology waste? But many others are far behind. They offer smartphones that are made with parts respecting the environment and the people, and each part can be replaced easily. Briliant idea.
Thank you Frank Dehnard and Dinh-Long for completing the comments and raising the point that we always have to count all the possible externalities when talking about digital technologies solutions.
Feel free to let me know if you have any other questions. Thank you. Digital is good tool for understanding the SDG goals and proper implementation, how one thing I have addressed here that most of the population living in least developed countries were illiterate, so we have need to capacity building of those communities through volunteers for understanding of digital media and how SDGs work.
Dear Muhammad, thank you for your comment. To make the most of it, we would love if you could introduce yourself briefly and share why you are interested in this discussion, and mention the question s you are answering to. If you also have more information to share, regarding a solution in capacity building for understanding digital media, that would be great too. While I don't work at this very moment on digital developments, the subject is close to my heart.
In particular digital inclusion. We have seen over the last decade many cases where digital technologies played an important role in reducing transactions costs remittanceshealth, and disaster preparedness to name a few. What I consider a major roadblock is still affordable, inclusive connectivity, coupled with digital skills and literacy, are essential elements in the fight against inequality. It can be acknowledged that digital creates enormous benefits, it also worsen existing divisions between countries, regions and communities.
I don't think the problem is the supply side of digital technologies but improving access. The solutions may be simple but difficult to implement. Thank you also for your comment on the importance of digital inclusion and the suggestion for a dedicated fund similar to the GEF fund.
More information here for those of you unfamiliar with the GEF Fund. In your area of work and considering your vast experience in knowledge and learning, what would you suggest are the top three areas that we need to address in terms of digital inclusion?
Too heavy in a sense, some cannot be installed in cheaper android phones. Some are too heavy as it consumes lots of data and many apps are not built to consume less data rather have HQ pictures which consume more RAM and data.
What are the digital breakthrough ideas you think could exponentially advance sustainable development. People need choices and making the information available on all platform makes more sense.
I believe very few people will download the apps to access the information which they only need for times. Do you think the use of websites and platforms that are mobile friendly are useful only for those not wanting to download an app or will this address other user groups? I think often it could be possible to create APPs in 2 versions. One for more advanced mobile devices and one for older versions. Even an iPhone 1 was working properly and people were happy to own one.
I think that the main concern of adopting digital technologies is so called 'fake news'. It is very difficult to verify if the news is real of fake. Some criminals and politicians use them to reach their goals. Digital education is the most important idea to cope with inequality in order to reach sustainable development.
It means that modern technology creates a lot of opportunity to improve poor people's life. Accessible education, especially online digital education creates equal opportunity for people in different countries. People from developing countries can study online in foreign school.
Do you have any examples of accessible education for people in developing countries that you can share with us? Also, this consultation can be accessed in over languages.
You should be able to type in your own language there is a button on top right that says "select your language" so language should not be barrier for this consultation. It certainly could become better but at least it's accessible.
But there are still many people without access. Without PC, Laptop or smartphone. Often even without electricity. IT could replace classrooms and universities! There are millions of still working devices in drawers or basements. But it would need funding A big project with huge impact As for buncontrolled algorithmic decision making could lead to systemic failures of higher orders of magnitude and hence endanger the whole concept of implementing and monitoring the SDGs.
The principle of the ' algorithmic monitor ', e. This idea is explained in detail in the mentioned book. Could you summarize the key points your book is addressing regarding these topics?
It would be greatly valuable for all the members! The realities for many are not the digital technologies as such, but rather exclusion and inequalities when it comes to whether they can use them. ZayoHub is building tech-enabled community centres, and providing financial services, renewable power, access to computers and internet, mobile phone signal where none was exercices d'aquagym pour maigrir jambes availablelivelihoods and education programmes etc.
We use technology to reduce remoteness - so, for example, livestock farmers can get to talk to a vet adviser via Skype, and local clinicians use connectivity to see advice on difficult cases. The impact of mobile money has been well documented, and we have found a similar appetite. We also support schools with digital education content, access to TV and computers. We manage these programmes, scattered across remote areas, via digital management programmes. Our services are a blend of free, commission based like mobile money and chargeable like watching the Africa Cup on TV!
We use our tech to share messages that never usually reach these communities - we have a partnership with the Health Ministry to share health education IEC, for example. So we aim for sustainability. None of these services would work easily on a stand-alone basis, as the costs would be high. But we share investment in power, connectivity, infrastructure and management across our diverse services, so the whole package becomes cost-effective and sustainable. We believe this would be a good topic for sharing at the proposed meeting, and will be happy to share more info.
Meantime please check out www. The ZayoHub project is certainly intended to be scalable. Indeed, the project becomes sustainable and impactful at scale. Our first stage is very much proof-of-concept, and we have been establishing and testing scalable interventions.
The next stage is to scale, which in fact will accelerate impact. There are partners that will provide resources when we scale sponsorship, for exampleand we are in a stronger position to build links between markets and producers when we have the largest network.
One small bit of data This model is dependent on its underlying technology - we can monitor, track switch on and off the smart batteries that it uses. There are no roads, usually no phone signal, no power, no other projects etc; they are at "the last mile" in terms of service delivery, with a small school and nurse-led clinic.
Resilient energy resources to power digital tech. Energy itself should become digital and needs to happen ASAP. Read here Dear Andrew Mayer, thank you for your message and for participating in this discussion.
It is with immense pleasure that I am joining this important discussion. First of all, I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate the UNDP and staff for hosting this discussion. Later today I will introduce myself and provide you with an indication of the focus of my contributions to address these two critical questions. Thank you Chris. We are all looking forward to knowing more about you and your interest in this discussion! Networks scale exponentially. Whenever we talk about "viral spread" or "cascades" or tipping points we're describing a phenomenon that has a network powering it.
So, unless we understand how networks work not digital social networks, the real life networks and we put this knowledge and tools into the hands of changemakers, we are waisting a lot of opportunities. Here's more about this idea. See facebook. Dear Pedro Portela, thank you for your inputs and raising the relevance of understanding how networks work.
We appreciate if you could please introduce yourself and share with us why you are interested in this discussion. Do you have any specific solution to share on how the use of complexity and network science and digital technologies are being used to address development issues?
Digital technology will play a critical role in the achievement of the SDGs, although innovation will most likely affect progress in both positive and negative ways. How can we collaborate so that the good does come through?
But at the same time, we know in our own operations there are a host of potential pitfalls and negative impacts that we want to mitigate as much as possible.
Thank you Dr.
Pm regimen simplificado wikipedia
Rantastia for your input. What would be the negative externalities of digital technologies? Extent of Technological Externalities for Human Resources, Population Control, and Environmental Effects and Remedies for those Externalities There are substantial positive externalities of human resources and negative externalities of population growth and economic growth on the environment.
Negative externalities for the consumer lead to too much data gathering. Examples of negative externalities include: — identity theft; — other forms of third party data use for questionable purposes such as spamming or direct marketing; — loss of personal data such as credit card numbers due to a lack of security of the servers where the data are stored.
The second question the best answer in today world is about 1 billion and more people are on Citizen recognised services in a short span of 6 years. India and its Adhar card.
That also helps our biggest health scheme of the century in the world. Are there any concerns you might have regarding the adoption of these solutions? More awareness is needed in cleanliness,and production of small machinary,and use of such in small town cleanliness. We are happy with construction of 0,2 million bio toilets are in use in 61, trains.
Similarly so many millions of toilets are constructed across the country,and maintenace is good. Looking for good investors in to these fields. Regarding the second part of your message, could you please highlight what was the role of digital technologies in the solution of the construction of the toilets? My concern about this is that it is only for India.
What about the rest of the world? Ce que je veux expérimenter c'est l'alphabétisation via le mobile pour permettre aux femmes à la fois à apprendre à lire et à vendre cellulite jambes lourdes naturellement produits ou services.
L'analphabétisme constitue un frein dans l'utilisation des réseaux sociaux par les femmes. Car beaucoup suivent à la lettre les informations reçues sans les vérifier ou les éprouver.
Une formation des femmes dans la vérification des informations leur permettra d'utiliser au mieux les informations distillées par les réseaux sociaux. La construction de maisons digitales dans les Institutions de Formations et d'Education Féminine est un créneau pour permettre aux femmes analphabètes de se familiariser avec le numérique et de l'utiliser dans leurs activités génératrices de revenus.
Could you give us an example of a case where this has been used? What worked? The growing problem may not just be for women and literacy but for even bigger roadblocks such as structural unemployment or retraining for the digital industries. To incorporate training and development into a social network so as when users experiment with new activities and meet a diverse group of participants so that the exchange of ideas can motivate them to seek further education. Thank you Gamunu for sharing your ideas.
Do you know any project, do you have any example that addresses what you mentioned? I am attaching a paper of mine for intrest on what we can do in digital platform-for Irrigation,Agriculture,water supply,water treatment. And also how to count the productivity,live stock,pumps,etc. Thank you Suryanarayana for sharing your work.
Could you summarize your key points and recommendations here, so that everyone can benefit from your work? Technology is a two-edged sword. More likely, the unchecked implications of A. Thank you for your comment and for pointing at the potential negative impacts of A. Hi, I am an IT professional and am interested in the SDG goals and the UN's ambitiousness in achieving it and would like to contribute in some ways for it. One of the major contributor of green house gas emission is considered to be air travel and which is also one of the fastest growing travel modes.
A simple aid in reducing the air travel is to substitute it by rail or efficient road travel for people who could afford to do it we can't realistically force people to make such a choice. One of the ways to help climate change conscious people to contribute is to provide a smartphone app which would track their air travel habits and provide substitute rail or road transport options.
There are ways this could be done by the app which i could elaborate on request, but the main point is that the app would be aiding a person to make wiser travel decisions. The app would be gathering statistics on how much CO2 emissions has been prevented and thus encourage the person to reduce air travel further and make him feel good and develop a sense of contribution towards SDGs.
Governments could promote this app by hosting an ad for this on their websites and other appropriate places and may be even start a reward system for people with good record of preventing CO2 emissions. Summary: A simple smartphone app which would help the user avoid air travel and take an alternative rail or road transport and thus prevent avoidable CO2 emissions and bring more employment to the rail and road transport industry.
Thank you Sankay for sharing your idea to tackle SDG 12 and 13, it is very clear. In Sweden, there is even a word for it: "flygskam" in English, "flying shame"which comes from a movement to boycott plane transportation. And there is even an initiative by a local govt. But i guess there isnt an app for flight transport alternatives suggestions. I was hoping maybe the UN might be developing this in-house or even I could take this up if time permits me from my daily work. I'm a Language and Education specialist with SIL International, and I consult on literacy projects in non-dominant languages in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as conducting research on language and education.
As that might imply, language is one of my main concerns with digital technologies. New initiatives need to take into account the large number of people who are not fluent in a language like English, Arabic, or Mandarin. Language is key to disseminating information and skills, so supplying resources in languages that people cannot understand will not help them in the way that resources in appropriate languages will.
Some major points to consider:. Does the new technology allow people to type in any script or writing system? How will the technology be built to facilitate human translation? Given that machine translation only works for languages with large amounts of translation between them, artificial intelligence will not serve speakers of many languages well, even the somewhat larger ones like Indonesian, Swahili, Yoruba, or Hausa. Many translations will need to be done by humans.
More generally, I'm concerned that initiatives gravitate toward the newest, most exciting technologies, when often older ones will be more effective. As another poster pointed out, websites can be more helpful that apps, but there seems to be less excitement about them.
People may be very motivated to become literate so they can read and write SMS, but I don't hear much about leveraging that. Another breakthrough has already happened; we just need to keep it in mind. Bill Gates said two decades ago, "Content is king. The internet is not king. Content is king. People use technology to access information, stories, songs, and conversations with other people; they don't use it for its own sake.
Communities can make and disseminate materials that matter to them. For example, Bloom layout software bloomlibrary. Wikipedia provides a platform for regular people to share about the topics that matter to them. Youtube gives people a way to share their creations and opinions. A breakthrough idea is leveraging technology so that communities can create the information they need to fulfill the SDGs themselves, through the learning methods that will serve them best.
Thank you Megan for sharing your concern. Have you heard of any existing solutions using the technologies and approaches you mentioned? I work for SIL International, which has been serving non-dominant language communities sinceand we are present all over the world. We have a team dedicated to writing systems technology that designs fonts, keyboards, and other technologies for non-dominant languages.
They would know how to ensure that solutions can be typed in any language, as well as addressing issues that I do not even know about. Regarding community-based materials development, SIL members also facilitate workshops where community members create, illustrate, and edit the materials they want. Many of these workshops use Bloom software for laying out the materials. It's much simpler and easier to use than Microsoft Publisher, so more people can get involved.
Bloom can export to e-books, which can be used on e-readers if digital devices are available, or if not, the same content can be printed. The whole process bypasses traditional publishing houses, which probably can't make enough money printing materials in non-dominant languages.
Bloom is also an example of translation-friendly software. Because it was created to serve languages all over the world, it includes a simple way to translate its interface. A bilingual person using the software can fill out a table of the terms used in the interface, and the program plugs in those words so that other speakers can use the program in a more familiar language. It also has features that allow people to easily translate existing books and even create bilingual books.
It's a great example of language-aware software, and I'm sure there are other examples. A key point about Bloom is that it isn't about the technology. It's about content creation. The technology brings more people into the process and enables them to focus on the information and stories, rather than input and data. I'm not trying to say that SIL has all the answers, or is the only one doing great work in this space. I'm just more familiar with our work than with the multitude of other projects around the world.
As I mentioned, I also think Wikipedia does great work. They serve as a platform for people to create and share the knowledge they believe is valuable, rather than predetermining what people should learn.
I have developed and scientifically tested breakthrough ideas based upon digital technologies. Communicable disease is a major burden on development. Recent research shows it is a dominant factor impeding the achievement of women's equality. More people now have mobile phones than have toilets. I have outlined the communication and security architecture making this possible:. Stodolsky, D. Automation of Contagion Vigilance. Methods of Information in Medicine, 36 3 Flirting failures, non-consensual sex, and stigma: Information technology solutions?
University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Thank you David for sharing your valuable research. Could you share with us the key data from your research? I have been very unhappy with the capitalism creeping into every corner of the internet. We need open-source, user-supported, ad-free social media and web searches. I want to find the appropriate technology, not the well-promoted stuff. I hope that we could achieve at least bank-transaction security to give users only two addresses, one very securely anonymous.
This would make on-line polling easy, and a bit more revealing if there are fewer public votes. Advertising takes up so much bandwidth and hardware that it might even cost less, while supporting real journalism.
Thank you Bob for sharing your frustration. Still, I will do my best to be brief. First thing one can see is that you can join this website only why?? This is hilarious, considering the subject. To name just a few. I'll let the others judge that. Considering this event is held by the U.
From another perspective, a certain and big concern is the simple fact of how many people around the world still confuse the "mobile phone" with the "smartphone". Which are 2 completely different things. The "mobile phone" is what it's called and the "smartphone" is a device. Yes, let's get back to basics. A device a spying device, more or less, that is another subject, worth debating, simply because many conveniently dodge it.
Which, obviously, is the main cause for brain cancer. In a civilised world, perhaps the client's health would come first, instead of the profit. This is where education is lacking. And where there's no education, people are being very easily manipulated and companies make huge profits. Also, it's very easy to spot the string of the 'quiet advantages' that benefit a number of actors: the espionage agencies all, unfortunately and their puppets, the governments, financial institutions as well as the big corporations.
Regarding a big challenge, it's worth considering a simple question: why is there no single company manufacturing a smartphone with a battery lasting 2 weeks? Not to mention 1 month? Except someone only misses the will to do it.
So this is a real challenge. Thank you Andrei for sharing your concerns. Are you aware of existing solutions that are tackling the issues you mentioned? Cada región tiene capacidades diferentes y fortalezas diferentes. Podría ser una tecnología digital para mejorar sustancialmente la calidad de vida de las personas en una región. La tecnología digital disponible para el aprendizaje en todos los niveles también es un potenciador de capacidades.
Thank you Maria for sharing your thoughts. Indeed, it is primordial that everyone understands the same definition of development. The penetration of digital technologies is indeed uneven across regions and territories and thank you for reminding that and for sharing examples of technologies that could bridge this gap.
This is definitely in line with the Agenda: behind the SDGs is the "leave no one behind" principle, that guide each stakeholder to pay particular attention to vulnerable and marginalized groups. I will try to stay fairly close to the questions posed at the start of this conversation, that is:. My involvement with computers and electronic data processing goes back to the time when they operated with vacuum tubes, and my own career has evolved as the technology has evolved.
My background is university training in engineering and economics, as well as training in accountancy. I have had several years in corporate management in the USA where my work had a focus on profit performance improvement and where I learned a lot about management and moving the needle far and fast in a good direction.
My management strength was mobilizing data to get people to make better decisions. I wanted data that were quick, cheap and good enough to enable others to make the best possible decision in their area of responsibility. I also wanted follow up data to show whether or not people were in fact making performance better or not. Speed was of the essence. The second half of my career has been working as an independent consultant for the UN, the World Bank and others.
At higher levels, however, I have not been impressed with the management of these organizations. The systems and structures are sub-optimal which is a nice way off saying pretty much dysfunctional and ineffective. I recognize that it is an enormously difficult task to change this, and for most people who have tried, it has been the end of their careers.
Nevertheless it needs to be done, and this is where something of a digital revolution is needed exponentially to advance sustainable development.
So, with respect to Q1 I would observe that development and deployment of digital technologies need to partner with human understanding to address current development issues. Every time we expect that technology will solve a problem without having a deep and sound understanding of human issues, there will be failure.
Modern technology is very very powerful, but most of the data are not designed very well for management action, especially action involving human beings and complex communities. This must be changed. With respect to Q2 and the idea of a breakthrough digital idea, I argue for better management information.
We need to change the way we keep score in the global socio-enviro-economic system. If we change the way the game is scored, we will change the way the game is played. Post career, I have been working to develop a way to use enhanced management accountancy so that social and environmental impacts may be managed as efficiently and effectively as money is managed and in the corporate sector, profit is maximized.
This requires a new system of numbering that is easy and widely accepted The goal is not merely to have great data, but to move the needle and have great progress and performance. My past experience both in running a fairly large factory some 1, workers and trying to improve development performance informs my thinking.
Summarized data is good for reporting what has been done, but is not useful for planning and decision making. Disaggregated data are needed so that people closest to the problem are able to relate to the data and be part of decision making.
Another way of saying this is that country level data is not very helpful, rather the data must relate to a place where people live their lives.
Data flows should be designed so that the process of collecting data informs local people so that they can see that they are making progress and be incentives to get more progress. A last point, is that summarized data about progress should become the foundation for the development and humanitarian assistance community to mobilize the financial resources that are essential for success at scale. This will not change until there is the sort of performance reporting that gets the attention of those that control the world's money.
This could become possible if we embrace the right digital data strategy. Existen sanciones a los transportistas que transportan a los extranjeros sin los adecuados documentos de viaje.
Las normas aplicables a los visados de entrada a corto plazo en el espacio Schengen se establecen en el Reglamento de la UE que contienen dos listas: una lista de las nacionalidades o clases de soporte del documento de viaje que requieren un visado para una estancia de corta duración el anexo I y una lista de los que no lo hacen la lista del anexo II.
Al estar incluidos en la lista de exención de visado puede en ocasiones pero no siempre, eximir a la nacionalidad o tipo enumerado de la obligación de obtener un permiso de trabajo y si así lo desean acceder a un empleo o actividad por cuenta propia durante su estancia; viajes de negocios normalmente no se consideran empleo en este sentido. De acuerdo con las directrices de la Unión Europea, cualquier solicitud de visado Schengen ha de ir acompañada de un pago de tasas de visado.
No son reembolsables, independientemente del resultado de la solicitud. Una visa Schengen o una exención de visado no hace, en sí misma, dar derecho a un viajero a entrar en el espacio Schengen. Se requieren guardias de fronteras para sellar los documentos de viaje de los nacionales de terceros países que cruzan las fronteras exteriores en todo momento, incluso en circunstancias extraordinarias e imprevistas, incluso cuando hay flexibilización de los controles.
Sello de salida para viaje aéreo emitido en el aeropuerto de Praga. Sello de salida for viaje en trenemitido en la estación de Tren Bad Schandau. Sello de salida para viaje por carretera ,emitido en el cruce fronterizo Korczowa. Sello de salida para viaje marítimoemitido en el puerto de Helsinki. Una visa de larga duración es una visa nacional, que se emite de acuerdo con un formato uniforme. El titular de un visado de larga duración o de un permiso de residencia tiene derecho a circular libremente dentro de otros estados que comprenden el espacio Schengen durante un período de hasta tres meses en el mismo semestre.
Por ejemplo, Francia no requiere ciudadanos de Andorra, Mónaco, San Marino y la Ciudad del Vaticano para solicitar un visado de larga duración. El derecho de entrada en el Espacio Económico Europeo EEE y Suiza incluye todos los países de la UE y del EEE y Suiza sin visa adicional que se hizo extensiva a los miembros de la familia de un tercer país de nacionales del EEE que ejercen su derecho de libre circulación para que posean una tarjeta de residencia en vigor de su país anfitrión del EEE y el deseo de visitar cualquier otro estado miembro del EEE para una estancia corta de hasta dieta da proteina usp cardapio días.
Si el miembro de la familia fuera del EEE no tiene ni una tarjeta de residencia a efectos del EEE o una visa, pero puede mostrar su vínculo familiar con la UE nacional por otros medios, entonces la visa se debe expedir en la frontera de forma gratuita y permitir la entrada.
Sin embargo, este requisito a diciembre de ha sido adaptado correctamente el Derecho belga, letón y sueco, y no se ha adaptado en absoluto por Austria, Dinamarca, Estonia, Italia, Lituania, Alemania y Eslovenia. Todavía se puede requerir la visa o otros documentos. Por ejemplo, el Reino Unido interpreta "tarjeta de residencia" en el artículo 5 2 de la Directiva en el sentido de tarjeta de residencia "del Reino Unido", e ignora otras tarjetas, y en su lugar solicita un "permiso de la familia del EEE" contrario a la Directiva.
Entrar al Reino Unido como el titular de una tarjeta de artículo 10 de la residencia. Los permisos se emiten con un periodo de validez de entre uno y cinco años, y permiten una estancia dentro del lado de Schengen de la zona fronteriza de hasta tres meses. Los Estados Schengen deben mantener un registro central de los permisos expedidos y tienen que proporcionar acceso inmediato a los datos correspondientes a otros Estados Schengen. Antes de la conclusión de un acuerdo con un país vecino, el Estado Schengen debe recibir la aprobación de la Comisión Europeaque tiene que confirmar que el proyecto de acuerdo se encuentre en conformidad con el Reglamento.
Tres de ellos son Hungría y Ucrania en enero deEslovaquia y Ucrania en septiembre de y Polonia-Ucrania en julio de password sonic riders ps2 La octava fue Letonia-Rusia en junio de Los ciudadanos de Kosovo con pasaportes de Kosovo, así como las personas que viven en Kosovo titulares del pasaporte biométrico de Serbia todavía necesitan un visado para viajar a la UE.
Serbia creó la Dirección de Coordinación Serbia para facilitar este proceso. Sin embargo, se espera que una hoja de ruta de liberalización de visados para Kosovo se anuncie y negocie en un futuro próximo. Las negociaciones de liberalización de visa entre la UE y los Balcanes occidentales con exclusión de Kosovo se llevaron a cabo durante el primer semestre dey terminaron en para Macedonia, Montenegro y Prix augmentation mammaire québec 2015 5eme y en para Albania y Bosnia y Herzegovina.
Antes de que las visas fueran completamente abolidas, los países de los Balcanes Occidentales Albania, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro y Serbia habían firmado "acuerdos de facilitación de visados" con los Estados Schengen en Los acuerdos de facilitación de visados, a la vez, suponieron acortar los tiempos de espera, bajas tarifas de visado incluidos los visados gratuitos para determinadas categorías de viajerosy reducir el papeleo.
Para contrarrestar los efectos potencialmente agravantes de la supresión de las fronteras a la inmigración indocumentada y la delincuencia transfronteriza, el acervo de Schengen contiene compensatorios policiales y medidas judiciales. El Convenio de Schengen también contenía medidas destinadas a simplificar la extradición entre los países participantes, no obstante éstos ahora han sido subsumidos en el sistema de la orden de detención europea.
El fundamento jurídico para Schengen en los tratados de la Unión Europea se ha insertado en el Tratado constitutivo de la Comunidad Europea a través del artículo 2, punto 15 del Tratado de Amsterdam.
Esto introduce un nuevo título llamado "Visados, asilo, inmigración y otras políticas relacionadas con la libre circulación de personas" en el tratado, actualmente numerados como el título IV, y que comprende los artículos 61 a El espacio Schengen originalmente tenía su base jurídica fuera de la entonces Comunidad Económica Europeahabiendo sido establecido por un sub-conjunto de los estados miembros de la Comunidad utilizando dos acuerdos internacionales:.
De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.
Discussion: Digital Challenges and Solution for Sustainable Development
Artículo principal: Acuerdo Schengen. In some cases the provisions related to the Schengen Information System were applied earlier. However, persons travelling between the Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Schengen area are not subject to border checks. Véase también: Territorios especiales de la Unión Europea. European Commission. Consultado el 13 April Consultado el vitamines pour que les cheveux poussent plus vite qu'eminem February Consultado el 15 September Council of the European Union.
Swift Tourism. Consultado el 8 January Government of the Netherlands. Consultado el Slovenia's EU Presidency. Royal Danish Embassy in London. Archivado desde el original el 10 January Consultado el 1 February Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Berlin. Consultado el 3 February These three Member States still have to pass the Schengen evaluation before they can join the Schengen area. The target date for Bulgaria and Romania is British Broadcasting Corporation.
Consultado el 9 June New York Times. Consultado el 23 September Wall Street Journal. Consultado el 25 September Consultado el 31 July Archivado desde el original el Shanghai Daily.
Balkan Insight. Famagusta Gazette. Consultado el 5 September Consulate General of France in New York. Archivado desde el original el 6 July French Consulate of Cape Town.
Consultado el 29 April You may do that. How can Muslims accept a debate between Muslims and Unbelievers? In his memoirs he states:. I stopped for a time in Paris, and there I saw a number of professors who were filled with pride and arrogance … whose followers treated them almost like gods. Therefore, as soon as I heard that the creed of the Arabs was widespread in Toledo, I hastened there in order that I might listen to the wisest philosophers in the world.
The political, cultured and merchant classes only spoke French and Friedrich II of Prussia observed: The best of the French writers have made their language a universal language, and French has become the language of scholars and politicians …. If you travel from Lisbon to St. Petersburg or from Stockholm to Naples and you speak French, then it is certain that wherever you stop off en route people will understand you. People only ate French food and they only conducted themselves in accordance with French etiquette.
In the old days everything was Roman, while today it is all French. Did not the great German thinker Thomasius write in his highly significant discourse on the subject—Discourse on the imitation of the French: If our forefathers were to return to this earth, they would not recognise us.
We have become a decadent, ignoble breed. Today everything we have and do must be French; we are French in our clothes, our food and our language; our habits and customs are French, and even our vices are French? In a correspondent in the London Magazine wrote: Stupid imitation of France has become the plague of this kingdom. Poor England cannot produce anything that can be eaten, worn or drunk. Our clothes, our furniture, even our food—all those things have started coming to us from France.
I do not wish to deny that France has a great civilization, but the only thing we copy from France — like monkeys—are the bad things. We imitate in a foul and rotten way that even the French themselves despise.
At the same time, there is a truth about universalism that will not just disappear if it is ignored. What is undeniable, however, is that today it is impossible for a person to shut his doors and close himself off from the winds that are blowing from the world outside. Nor can he ignore the fact that there are cultures produced by a wide range of different values and value systems and that numerous people have adopted them and come to regard them as their own.
This does not just apply to the cultures of the developing world; it can also be seen in advanced countries too. Is there not a heated debate today between the neoliberal supporters of multiculturalism and those who believe in a single standard set of values and cultural exclusivity within the borders of a single country?
The two phenomena are inseparable and are mirror images of each other. Never neutral in colour, this universalism has always come in the colour of the dominant culture. In my view, the different positions are the result of the growing role of the media.
In earlier times getting hold of information was a slow and difficult process, but today all the doors to it are wide open and most cultures are open to the outside world.
The only barrier today is capital, which is. Who knows, perhaps after our era of Euro-American universalism the next universalism will be Chinese? In his book On searching for the truththe famous French philosopher Nicolas de Malebranche wrote: I can see that two times two equals four, and that a person should prefer his human friend to his dog.
I am also completely certain that there is nobody on earth who is incapable of seeing this just as I see it …. On searching for the truth, Explication Ten.
And, depending on the answer we give to this question, how is it possible to conceive of a dialogue between the different cultures? In highlighting the context and history of universalism, Westerners have tended to maintain that the concept of universalism is solely their invention. They see its context as being neither more nor less than the Western intellectual tradition—a tradition which, in their view, sees universalism as a pressing need.
However, François Jullien proposes a third historical model. In his view, three factors caused the concept of universalism to occupy the place it occupies in Western thought today: 1. Religion, as represented by St. Paul, which transcended all national affiliations and incorporated globalism in its belief system. His answer to this question is: Yes and no. In the Arab, Indian, Japanese and Chinese cultures that he has examined he finds that—universalism is a significant factor.
For example, in Arab culture he sees one manifestation of universalism as being the importance attached to logic, and in his view logic can only be described as a universalist phenomenon.
He can be forgiven for thinking this, since he has not read some of the writings in defence of—classical Arab Islamic cultural universalism. In making these accusations, our friend fails to take note of the fact free rider mtb apparel there were unbiased thinkers who adopted a universalist approach to human nations, communities and cultures. Sustainable universalism is not standardised, uniform universalism, but a discrete, differentiated universalism.
I consider nothing that is human alien to me. By their very nature, things that belong to another age, culture or set of traditions will always be mutually intelligible. Every exclusivist culture needs to look at itself in the mirror and, when it does so, it will have no right to point its finger accusingly at the mirror if the mirror shows it something that makes it feel uneasy.
This brings us to the importance of translation as a factor in enabling universalism to survive. Without it, we shall all find ourselves talking gibberish. Differences between cultures are never absolute because there is no culture upon earth that can remain static for all time.
Moreover, in principle there is. Hence the survival of universalism is conditional upon the extent of our openness to others and the extent of their openness to us.
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Geneviève, haut lieu de la pensée occidentale médiévale. Une question à la fois vaste par ses présupposés et ses implications, et ambiguë dans sa formulation. Le premier legs objectif est de nature spatio-temporel. La notion de civilisation, note encore J. Le monde dans sa représentation générale est, à bien des égards, européen. Ayant façonné un monde à son image, elle peine à y trouver sa place. Les facteurs de puissance une affirmation de soi expansive, une confiance en soi un peu arrogante, une manière de donner des leçons à la Terre entière sont aussi des facteurs de dissolution crise interne, atermoiements.
Droit, pluralisme et syncretisme. Une latinité, que nous devons entendre en un sens assez particulier. Le pluralisme est une vieille affaire. La vocation syncrétique romaine est patente. Il faut ici se référer aux analyses lumineuses.
Celui du carrefour: pour un Français, il y a quatre routes, pour un latin, il y en a trois trivium. Pour R. Brague, ceci illustre assez bien le rapport singulier des Romains à leur origine, conçue comme la transplantation dans un nouveau sol de quelque chose qui existait déjà. Brague, p. Mais aussi conçoit un cadre juridique qui permettra la diffusion de la citoyenneté romaine. Se trouve imbriqué de façon très original le local et le global. Toutes trois présentes dans la latinité.
Le legs latin a été longtemps minimisé, au profit du seul génie grec. Michel Serres fait justement remarquer que la célébration des Grecs commence au début du XIXème siècle. Presque tous les philosophes allemands sont pasteurs ou fils de pasteurs. Ils ont une détestation de Rome. Rendons à Rome ce qui appartient à Rome. Le livre des fondations, Grasset, Le Sud latin est ouverture, il est cette altérité fécondante. Il y a une responsabilité particulière à poser la latinité comme valeur.
Habermas was speaking of and for Europe, and yet his very conception of the modern project implied the universality of his philosophical claims. Precisely those non-Western countries where economic and social modernization were relatively successful were discovering alternative paths forward, taking up his challenge outside of the specific modernist paradigm that Habermas described, exposing the fact that, in its presumed universality of content and objectivity of method, the modernist paradigm was culturally specific and, as a consequence, singularly inadequate.
Two figures writing in the early s were exemplary. Here is the critical passage: The question of the objectivity and universality of the process of modernisation and secularisation persists.
If it is an unfinished project, what will be the role of non-Western civilizations, which have been the object of this project, bike rides reston va the next phase? Is secularisation an irreversible part of this universal project or a culture-bound counterpart of one form of modernity specific to a particular civilisation? Esposito and Azzam Tamini, eds. If deconstruction is inevitable, will there remain any historicity to non-Western civilisations in the future?
Without historicity what does the rhetoric of pluralism mean? It is the concept of civilization that needs to be unpacked at this point.
The fault lines between civilizations [of which the Bosnian conflict was one] will be the battle lines of the future.
Davutoglu favored modernization by means of Islam rather than against it. His was a discourse of universality, arguing for the contribution of Muslim civilizational values of cosmopolitan tolerance to a civilizationally shared, global project.
Esposito, eds. Rather, it is his reliance on certain Western methodologies, specifically twentiethcentury German phenomenology in which both he and I are schooled. From Dilthey he takes the concept of Weltanschauung; from Husserl he borrows aspects of phenomenological reduction; from Heidegger he accepts a philosophical ontology grounded on the concept of authenticity. My own study of this tradition was mediated by the critical theory of Theodor Adorno, through whose reception I acquired a suspicion of all ontological claims, whether constituted by epistemology or constitutive of it.
In short, the methods of Max Weber a neo-Kantian and Martin Heidegger an existential ontologist are incompatible. But to elaborate fully on this point would take us too far into philosophical detail. And although I will comment on its significance again below, for present purposes, my general criticism can be stated quite plainly: to presume any civilizational authenticity, Islamic or Western, we would have to establish that such phenomena as authentic civilizations exist, and that they provide analytic categories stable enough to do the work of differentiating the life-worlds of individuals and groups that inhabit them.
I must confess, that from the U. When one considers the fact that the lack of European unity had as its consequence two World Wars in the twentieth century, this belated search for commonality bears a mythic aroma. Shared history? Shared culture? Shared religion? None of these have ever produced a united Europe. It is remarkable how many of the predictions made twenty years ago have failed to materialize, and how unprepared for the new realities the self-declared experts seem to be.
A certain anarchist sentiment among the younger generation is baffling even to the most progressive of political analysts. Los Indignados, the Occupy movements and other social activists appear too naïve, too idealistic, and too vague in their demands to meet the conventional criteria for political success. But there may be knowledge, even wisdom taking root in these recent social movements that escapes traditional political topographies of thought.
The very success of identity politics has, as Hegel would say, gone to ground zu Grunde gehen. Multiculturalism is nowhere now an adequate response.
The very idea of democracy has become unmoored from the national context that was its earlier home. It is difficult to trace the exact lineage of this phrase, or by what means it migrated to the political realm. But migrate it did, for example, in the massive street demonstrations that followed the murder of the Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink, who was shot by an ultranationalist teenager in The demonstrators embraced the slogan: We are all Armenians. We are all Hrant Dink.
As a form of solidarity, as a democratic action in the globally visible public sphere, thousands of citizens gathered on the streets of Istanbul to protest against nationalist ethnic exclusions, setting a standard for other political actors around the world.
It is within this self-consciously global topology that the events of the Arab Spring emerged: We are all Mohamed Bouazizi. We are all Khalid Said. The courage of their nonviolent occupation of Tahrir Square captivated a world of electronic spectators, granting to the Egyptians global solidarity and enormous respect.
Their massive citizen action challenged the credibility of an entire hegemonic discourse, with its claims that the Middle East was not ready for democracy, that the people needed authoritarian government, or, preposterously, that democracy needed to be imposed on the Muslim world from the outside, by force of arms.
These democratic successes happened without paternal leaders, without foreign teachers, without invading armies. It was not a case of Egyptians or Tunisians catching up with the West. Rather, they were showing the rest of the world the way. It is easy to forget the promise of this moment, given the multiple cases of violence and state repression that have since occurred. But the transnational responses to the Arab Spring initiated a global movement unlike any that we have seen before, and it is important to try to capture that moment in words.
If we were to speak in Hegelian terms about a world spirit, it indeed appears to be universal, not the end of history, but the end of a particular kind of history, and the beginning of something truly new, because it cannot be contained within the existing world order.
It connects to the idea of the ummah, in that it spills out over the boundaries of Nation-States. It continues the work of the World Social Forum in its call for an alternative globalization.
Merging these spatially separated actions into a genealogy-in-common, and breaking away from the fractiousness of identity politics in the process, it brings these initiatives into synchrony across so-called civilizational divides.
The global. Rather, democracy as conceived within Western modernity has been insufficient indeed, deficient from the start.
The American Constitution apéritif minceur non-property owning males from the vote until the late 19th century, women untiland black Americans, de facto, until the s. The Declaration of Independence of the American colonies that proclaimed all men equal omitted from that definition the unfree labor force of African slaves.
The French Revolution only temporarily tolerated the liberation of their African slaves before attempting unsuccessfully to destroy the Haitian Revolution by force. Americas, to take their place. Marx was absolutely clear in his criticism of bourgeois democracy as not only incomplete, but incapable of being completed, so long as economic exploitation was intrinsic to the production process.
He argued that attempts to legislate equality on the political level were an open admission of the nonexistence of equality on the level of society. Whereas Marx was wrong to dismiss political democracy tout court, he rightly demarcated the structural limits of democracy in its modern, capitalist form. Today more than ever in neoliberal democracies money rules.
Finance capitalism integrates a global oligarchy that includes economic actors of every ethnicity and every religion. This system has resulted in grotesque disparities of wealth, both between nations and within them. Capitalist social relations are based on the extraction of value from labor and from nature, in order for the system to thrive. The privatization and enclosure of any productive force from which profit can be obtained is encouraged.
The social costs of the production process, so-called externalities, are left unpaid. Human misery is discounted. Risks to citizen health are measured in terms of the trade-off between benefits and costs. The trivialization of life for profit is a common occurrence. Deregulation rewards capitalists even when they fail. Banks survive, and citizens—entire national populations—are forced by authorities to pay the price. Political Islam owes much to the Marxist critique of capital, which was widely discussed in the Muslim world during the Cold War era.
The present leader of Tunisia, Rashid al-Gannouchi, who has long been a strong defender of democracy, rejects the myth that free markets unregulated capitalism mean free, that is, democratic societies. John B. Hardie, rev and intro. John L. Wealth is assigned a social mission In recent work, I have been developing the argument that the reason why the West succeeded in launching that new form of capitalism which scholars in the tradition of Max Weber recognize as definitive, and which differed from earlier capitalist systems because of the unprecedented violence of colonial trade, is that the European merchants, quite literally, broke the law.
One can certainly agree with Ahmet Davutoglu when he places economics as necessarily subordinate to social morality. Adam Smith himself would not disagree, which is why he intended his book, The theory of moral sentiments, to be read alongside the later, better-known volumes, The wealth of nations.
To argue directly from a religious tenet to practical life is not justified in this case, any more than to presume that the pacifist message of Christianity, with its gentle symbol of the Lamb of God, provides an adequate basis for ensuring global peace. Political governance cannot be replaced by an ethical community, and Islam is no exception to this rule. A second contradiction that needs to be considered in regard to the unfinished democratic project is the tension between democracy in its radically egalitarian form and social hierarchies that exclude democratic participation.
Davutoglu insists that Islam teaches the absolute equality of human beings. This political identification and integration process in an Islamic society is the main difference in comparison with the state tradition in Western civilization—as nationalist, communist, or liberal-democratic— or class consciousness.
The achievement of legitimacy His argument makes a compelling case for the refusal to separate religion from the state, when religion holds the state socially responsible for ensuring equality, regardless of color or ethnicity. But the translation of this principle into political policies has proven problematic, with extreme consequences. This is where the epistemology of critical theory can be effective against the shortcomings of political ontology see Susan Buck-Morss, Thinking past terror: Islamism and critical theory on the left, New York, Verso,p.
It is in play among sectarians of the Gülen movement which, despite its outspoken adherence to secular pluralism, holds elitist views of ethnicity, nationalism, and Islamic spirituality. They support free markets and secularism; they teach in English, and only secular subjects. But again, it is not religion that draws the dividing line between autocratic and democratic rule. Here too, the Marxist experience is instructive, this time as an example of how not to proceed. At least since Lenin, a division was justified between the radical egalitarian goal of a classless society and the dictatorial elitism of Communist Party rule, essentially preventing any truly democratic practice—even when on paper, the Soviet Constitution, the USSR became the most democratic country in the world.
The fate of the French Communist Party hinged on the question of elitism, as intellectuals, through their own brilliance, increased the gap between theoretical understanding of Marxism and its popular embrace, to the point where the leadership could not support popular democratic action. Bourguiba took control of the economy, and seized mosques, trade unions, and political parties.
It is a political claim based on the premise that all men have equal capacity for democratic participation. It is the strange tale of a French teacher who manages to teach what he does not know.
For a corrective critique of George W. Indeed, such practices in autonomy may be the precondition for political agency. There is a struggle within Islamic parties at this moment, and it has to deal precisely with the issue of elitism, the pedagogic distance between the people and their leaders. You have a new understanding and a new energy.
Third paradox: national democracy and global exclusions. A third inadequacy in the realization of modern democracy is the fact that it is structured and contained within the limits of Nation-States. There is an almost constitutive intolerance of outsiders. Kirkpatrick, New York Times, March 14, International relations are unequal relations.
National selfinterest is the legitimating principle. Violation of the democratic rights of others follows according to the premise of might makes right.
Double standards of morality and even blatant hypocrisy in the practice of ethical norms are part of the international system under Western hegemony. The ideal of democracy as imagined within the European model in no way extended to foreign affairs, where Westphalian Treaty principles from in the context of colonial practices were taken as binding. Among Muslim nations, the dualist appeal to the superiority of Sharia Law can have opposite effects—either nullifying an international law, or, in the case of a Muslim ruler who violates Sharia law, backing an international law more in accord with Sharia principles.
The status in Muslim countries presently varies. This state of affairs can lead to grotesque distortions, insofar as the practice of democracy within a nation can be diametrically opposed to the realization of democratic relations between them.
The vague presumption that democratic nations are inherently more peaceful—and hence more reliable as possessors of nuclear weapons—is empirically unfounded. The power to wage war is concentrated in the executive branch, so that pigmentation in back of eye go to war with very little democratic oversight. When they do ask for popular support, appeals to the people are made in terms of protecting the homeland, whereas the protection of other civilian populations is not equally valued, and voters do not know or care sufficiently about the fate of those beyond their borders.
Despite the image of Muslim intellectuals as Occidentalist and anti-Western, in reality the Muslim part of the. But even in the best of circumstances, Nation-States are not held democratically accountable to the global population. This is particularly painful when the act being opposed is precisely the democratic founding of a Nation.
Asked whether Turkey, a predominantly Muslim democracy of nearly 79 million people and an American ally in the region, belonged in NATO [which it has since ], Mr. Perry said it did not. In Novemberthe US-Israeli coalition was unable to prevent the General Assembly from voting, and the resolution passed with overwhelming support nationsbut de jure membership was still withheld.
When only citizens have rights, and Palestinians are denied the statehood that would guarantee them, the contradiction between national democracy and global exclusions becomes extreme. Increasingly troubling are ecological crises that are indifferent to national borders that make any kind of rational response impossible when the nations with the greatest global power are also the greatest polluters.
And that is not all. Again, the negative effects of the economic order become manifest, this time in terms of the distribution of power between sovereign nations and global firms. Because corporations have been declared legal persons, it is they whose rights have been protected by international law, not the individuals harmed by their actions.
In a global public sphere, defiance of state boundaries is practiced by diverse actors—labor immigrants and computer hackers, political refugees and al-Qaida networks, multi-national corporations and NGOs. National boundaries as the politically salient distinction become questionable, as do many of the excluding binaries of modern politics.
When political space is fungible and solidarity is inscribed within complex geopolitical networks, Left and Right lose coherence as a classificatory system. In this shifting terrain, the appeal of moral absolutism, the simplifying discourse of good v. When the goals are socio-economic justice, human dignity, and global equality of rights and responsibilities, then democratic means to these goals must be respected.
Democracy is a contingent, not an ontological quality. It cannot be possessed without its practice. As a descriptive term, it passes to diverse actors who earn the name through their actions that embody the idea and make it perceptible in the world. Is a return to authentic cultures at this point possible? Times of transition evoke a longing for the security of authenticity, but precisely this is denied us. No collective will Journal of International Human Rights, v.
The global public sphere is an actor now, not merely a Kantian spectator. And democracy is its responsibility. We are in an era of experimentation, when ways forward will not be entirely old or entirely new, entirely authentic or entirely imported.