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Back Acne Scars Tre Tyrosinase is an enzyme containing copper that catalyzes the production of melanin from the tyrosine through oxidation oxidase.
It predominantly deals in the oxidation of phenols, such as tyrosine and dopamine, using oxygen. The enzyme is synthesized in the melanosomes inside the melanocytes in the skin 4. Tyrosinase is a single chain glycoprotein that appears to be synthesized in ribosomes and transferred through the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, where it is glycosylated and packaged in vesicles called premelanosomes.
The process of glycosylation is essential for the spatial arrangement of the newly formed protein and for the creation of its active site 5. In the presence of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, the function of tyrosinase is completely inhibited 6,7. Besides activation of melanogenesis, UV irradiation causes specific photodamage to the skin resulting in so-called photoaging.
In this regard, photodamage, photoaging, and pigmentation are closely linked. The other important factor to be considered is that if the photodamage level is high enough, it will result in the granules of melanin spreading into the dermis layer of the skin, and this pigmentation is rather enduring, because, unlike the epidermis, the dermis is not regularly renewed.
This leads to the formation of a stable skin imperfection.
And while this can be treated by removing the thickness of the dermis containing the melanin, the traumatic nature of the treatment can result in a new post-inflammatory melanogenesis. The only other option remaining to remove hyperpigmentation is the phagocytosis of melanotic granules by macrophages.
These receptors are activated through the binding with injected hyaluronic acid fragments between 20 and 38 monomers 8, to 20, Daltons Moreover, acetylglucosamine, as the final product of the metabolization of hyaluronic acid, acts as an inhibitor of the glycosylation of tyrosinase, blocking its function as well as the biosynthesis of the new melanin 11, Multiple findings suggest that succinic acid also has the ability to reduce pigmentation Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with metal chelating potential 14and a particular affinity to copper Copper is present in the active site of tyrosinase, and has a vital role in the activity of this enzyme 15, The chelation of the copper in the tyrosinase results in blocking its enzymatic activity and complete enzyme function loss Furthermore, the succinic acid belongs to the category of weak acids, and has both an acidifying and antioxidant action.
Sodium succinate, introduced into the dermis, dissociates freeing succinic acid, which develops its antioxidant activity by inhibiting the melanic effect of free oxygen radicals, and inhibiting the oxidizing action of the tyrosinase, needed for the processing of the tyrosine and the DOPA The reducing action of succinic acid determines, as in the case of ascorbic acid, the clearance of the melanin from the oxidized state blackand in the reduced state brown decreases the intensity of the melanin colour 18, One of the most popular ways to correct of skin ageing is via injections of hyaluronic acid.
However, practical outcomes show clear advantages with the combination of hyaluronic acid and other active ingredients over hyaluronic acid as a monotherapy The combination of hyaluronic and succinic acids is already a well-established solution used for anti-ageing skin injections. At the time of this publication there are no specific guidelines for the combinational use of hyaluronic acid and succinic acid exclusively for skin hyperpigmentation, but the protocol used for anti-ageing purposes, which has demonstrated its effectiveness for skin pigmentation is as follows 20 :.
The procedure should be performed in accordance to the type of skin ageing and the site of application. The periorbital area should be treated with lower concentrations of HA while the forehead might require medium to higher concentrations. The outcome of procedures using this combination of HA and succinic acid were rather significant, including skin lifting, deep moisturising, and smoothing, as well as an improvement of the colour of the skin and reduction of pigmentation.
Since the decision to use redermalization as a more effective treatment in skin rejuvenation, at least two studies have suggested that using HA with sodium succinate can increase skin tightness, reduce sagging, and moisturize the skin 22, In these studies, increased skin elasticity was observed in participants treated with mono-component HA products, whereas in skin treated with a HA product that included sodium succinate, a significant improvement in overall skin quality was observed cellulite olio di mandorle weleda to an increase in its turgor and elasticity, improved hydration, and colour correction.
Results in older patients were more visible, and skin defects experienced accelerated healing at skin biopsy sites after treatment in all study patients when compared with the same biopsy areas before treatment. A recent study indicated that the treatment has a more noticeable impact in comparison with mono-component HA products the study included 5 female patients at the age 28—50 Semi-quantitative histological analysis of skin biopsies in all patients also suggested the greater influence of HA and sodium succinate on the structure of the dermis and capillary network of the skin.
Results are visible immediately after the first procedure is performed, especially with medium to higher concentrations of HA. Though obtaining better aesthetic results normally requires 3 to 5 sessions. The result achieved during treatment typically last for 6 to 9 months though residual after-effect related to the stimulating action of the succinic acid might last much longer.
Redermalization should be especially considered in complex clinical situations when a patient requires a diversified anti-ageing solution and not just lifting or anti-wrinkle treatments. Patients with skin pigmentations as well as other signs of photoaging should consider redermalization as possible alternative to laser resurfacing or chemical peelings.
Patients who cannot tolerate longer recovery periods of the aforementioned procedures should also consider HA plus SA injections. If moisturization is the main purpose, patients might undergo a traditional procedure injections of HA alone. Skin hyperpigmentation is a common aesthetic problem related to excess UV irradiation to the skin. But as long as UV irradiation causes a diversified negative impact on the skin resulting in photoaging, treatment for hyperpigmentation should be approached in a comprehensive way tailored to the needs of the patient.
Combinations of hyaluronic and succinic acids have reasonable scientific merit and practical data supporting their anti-ageing properties, as well as reducing skin pigmentation. Further clinical trials should reveal more data in this regard, which will allow us to use this method even more effectively. You must be logged in to post a comment.