IntronA est utilisé en association à des traitements anticancéreux, tumeur carcinoïde une tumeur du système endocrinien, qui produit les hormonesmélanome malin un type de cancer de la peau qui affecte les cellules appelées mélanocytes. IntronA is used as an add-on to anticancer treatments, carcinoid tumour a tumour of the endocrine system that produces hormonesmalignant melanoma a type of skin cancer affecting cells called melanocytes.
De plus, l'invention concerne une cellule eucaryote non mélanocytique qui exprime de manière constitutive la tyrosinase humaine biologiquement active qui, à son tour, catalyse la production de mélanine. Additionally, the invention provides a non-melanocytic eucaryotic cell which constitutively expresses biologically active human tyrosinase which in turn catalyzes the production of melanin.
Vitiligo - est-ce une maladie auto-immune dans laquelle des cellules pigmentaires mélanocytes sont détruits, entraînant de forme irrégulière des taches blanches sur la peau.
Vitiligo - It is an autoimmune disease in which the pigment cells melanocytes are destroyed, resulting in irregularly shaped white spots on the skin.
La couleur des cheveux est déterminée par un pigment, la mélanine, qui est produite par des cellules spécialisées appelées mélanocytes. The hair color is determined by a pigment, the melanin, produced by specialized cells known as melanocytes.
Le vitiligo est une affection cutanée qui détruit les mélanocytes cellules qui fabriquent pigment dans la peau. Vitiligo is a skin disorder which destroys melanocytes cells that make pigment in the skin. Dans ce trouble de la pigmentation, les mélanocytes cellules qui font pigment dans la peau sont détruites, provoquant des taches blanches apparaissent sur la peau. In this pigmentation disorder, the melanocytes cells that make pigment in the skin are destroyed, causing white patches to appear on the skin.
Inhibe la tyrosinase, processus responsable du dérèglement du mélanocytecellule responsable de la pigmentation de la peau. Inhibits tyrosinase, responsible process of dysregulation of the melanocytecell responsible for skin pigmentation. La présente invention concerne des méthodes de propagation rapide de cellules souches somatiques du follicule pileux ou de cellules souches de mélanocytes. The present invention is directed to methods for readily propagating somatic hair follicle stem cells or melanocyte stem cells.
Vitiligo est une maladie de la peau qui est causée par le dysfonctionnement ou la perte de cellulesappelées mélanocytesce qui donne la couleur de la peau.
The Industrial and Scientific Revolutions brought a huge expansion in the range of synthetic pigments, pigments that are manufactured eft et maigrir refined from naturally occurring materials, available both for manufacturing and artistic expression. Because of the expense of Lapis Lazulimuch effort went into finding a less costly blue pigment.
Prussian Blue was the first modern synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French ultramarinea synthetic form of lapis lazuliand the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean Blue. In the early 20th century, organic chemistry added Phthalo Bluea synthetic, organometallic pigment with overwhelming tinting power.
Discoveries in color science created new industries and drove changes in fashion and taste. The discovery in of mauveinethe first aniline dyewas a forerunner for the development of hundreds of synthetic dyes and pigments like azo and diazo compounds which are the source of wide spectrum of colors. Mauveine was discovered by an year-old chemist named William Henry Perkinwho went on to exploit his discovery in industry and become wealthy.
His success attracted a generation of followers, as young scientists went into organic chemistry to pursue riches. Within a few years, chemists had synthesized a substitute for madder in the production of Alizarin Crimson.
By the closing decades of the 19th century, textilespaints, and other commodities in colors such as redcrimsonblue, and purple had become affordable. Development of chemical pigments and dyes helped bring new industrial prosperity to Germany and other countries in northern Europe, but it brought dissolution and decline elsewhere. In Spain's former New World empire, the production of cochineal colors employed thousands of low-paid workers. The Spanish monopoly on cochineal production had been worth a fortune until the early 19th century, when the Mexican War of Independence and other market changes disrupted production.
When chemists created inexpensive substitutes for carmine, an industry and a way of life went into steep decline. Before the Industrial Revolutionmany pigments were known by the location where they were produced. Pigments based on minerals and clays often bore the name of the city or region where they were mined.
These pigments were among the easiest to synthesize, and chemists created modern colors based on the originals that were more consistent than colors mined from the original ore bodies. But the place names remained. Historically and culturally, many famous natural pigments have been replaced with synthetic pigments, while retaining historic names. In some cases the original color name has shifted in meaning, as a historic name has been applied to a popular modern color.
By convention, a contemporary mixture of pigments that replaces a historical pigment is indicated by calling the resulting color a huebut manufacturers are not always careful in maintaining this distinction. The following examples illustrate the shifting nature of historic pigment names:.
Before the development of synthetic pigments, and the refinement of techniques for extracting mineral pigments, batches of color were often inconsistent. With the development of a modern color industry, manufacturers and professionals have cooperated to create international standards for identifying, producing, measuring, and testing colors.
First published inthe Munsell Color System became the foundation for a series of color models, providing objective methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system describes a color in three dimensions, huevalue lightnessand chroma color puritywhere chroma is the difference from gray at a given hue and value.
By the middle years of the 20th century, standardized methods for pigment chemistry were available, part of an international movement to create such standards in industry.
The International Organization for Standardization ISO develops technical standards for the manufacture of pigments and dyes. ISO standards define various industrial and chemical properties, and how to test for them. The principal ISO standards that relate to all pigments are as follows:.
Other ISO standards pertain to particular classes or categories of pigments, based on their chemical composition, such as ultramarine pigments, titanium dioxideiron oxide pigments, and so forth. Many manufacturers of paints, inks, textiles, plastics, and colors have voluntarily adopted the Colour Index International CII as a standard for identifying the pigments that they use in manufacturing particular colors. First published inand now published jointly on the web by the Society of Dyers and Colourists United Kingdom and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists USAthis index is recognized internationally as the authoritative reference on colorants.
It encompasses more than 27, products under more than 13, generic color index names. In the CII schema, each pigment has a generic index number that identifies it chemically, regardless of proprietary and historic names. For example, Phthalo Blue has been known by a variety of generic and proprietary names since its discovery in the s. In much of Europe, phthalocyanine blue is better known as Helio Blue, or by a proprietary name such as Winsor Blue.
An American paint manufacturer, Grumbacher, registered an alternate spelling Thalo Blue as a trademark. Colour Index International resolves all these conflicting historic, generic, and proprietary names so that manufacturers and consumers can identify the pigment or dye used in a particular color product. The two forms of Phthalo Blue, PB15 and PB16, reflect slight variations in molecular structure that produce a slightly more greenish or reddish blue.
Selection of a pigment for a particular application is determined by cost, and by the physical properties and attributes of the pigment itself. For example, a pigment that is used to color glass must have very high heat stability in order to survive the manufacturing process; but, suspended in the glass vehicle, its resistance to alkali or acidic materials is not an issue.
In artistic paint, heat stability is less important, while lightfastness and toxicity are greater concerns. The following are some of the attributes of pigments that determine their suitability for particular manufacturing processes and applications:. Pure pigments reflect light in a very specific way that cannot be precisely allergan botox cijena by the discrete light emitters in a computer display. However, by making careful measurements of pigments, close approximations can be made.
The Munsell Color System provides a good conceptual explanation of what is missing. Munsell devised a system that provides an objective measure of color in three dimensions: hue, value or lightnessand chroma.
Computer displays in general are unable to show the true chroma of many pigments, but the hue and lightness can be reproduced with relative accuracy. However, when the gamma of a computer display deviates from the reference value, the hue is also systematically biased. The following approximations assume a display device at gamma 2. The further a display device deviates from these standards, the less accurate these swatches will be. Different brands and lots of the same pigment may vary in color.
Furthermore, pigments have inherently complex reflectance spectra that will render their color appearance greatly different depending on the spectrum of the source illumination ; a property called metamerism.
Averaged measurements of pigment samples will only yield approximations of their true appearance under a specific source of illumination. Computer display systems use a technique called chromatic adaptation transforms [ 15 ] to emulate the correlated color temperature of illumination sources, and cannot perfectly reproduce the intricate spectral combinations originally seen.
In many cases the perceived color of a pigment falls outside of the gamut of computer displays and a method called gamut mapping is used to approximate the true appearance. Gamut mapping trades off any one of LightnessHue or Saturation accuracy to render the color on screen, depending on the priority chosen in the conversion's ICC rendering intent. In biologya pigment is any colored material of plant or animal cells.
Many biological structures, such as skineyesfur and hair contain pigments such as melanin. Animal skin coloration is often achieved with specialized cells called chromatophoreswhich in animals such as the octopus and chameleon can be controlled to vary the animal's color. Many conditions affect the levels or nature of pigments in plant, animal, some protistaor fungus cells.
For instance, Albinism is a disorder affecting the level of melanin production in animals. Pigmentation is used in organisms for many biological purposes including CamouflageMimicryAposematism warningSexual selection and other forms of SignallingPhotosynthesis in plantsas well as basic physical purposes such as protection from Sunburn. Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescenceusually because of multilayer structures.
For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well.
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Traduction de "pigmentation mélanine" en anglais. Il concerne les cellules qui produisent la pigmentation mélaninequi est responsable de la couleur de la peau et des cheveux. It involves the cells that produce pigment melaninwhich is responsible for skin and hair color. L'albinisme est dû à une absence de pigmentation mélanine des cheveux, de la peau et des yeux, qui cause une grande sensibilité au soleil et à la lumière vive.
Albinism results in a lack of pigmentation melanin in the hair, skin and eyes, causing vulnerability to the sun and bright light. Suggérer un exemple. Le type de pigment naturel mélanine contenu dans le cortex. The type of natural colour pigment melanin present in your hair's cortex. Les cellules responsables de la production des pigments mélanine de notre peau sont les mélanocytes et elles augmentent la production de mélanine lorsqu'elles sont stimulées par le soleil.