All these studies are burdened by huge bias and important methodological mistakes Millar and Kruk, ; Nielsen, ; Poussin, ; Warshak, Wide research on the topic of life satisfaction linked to childhood adversity was run by seven researchers from seven universities of Sweden, Greenland, Finland, Iceland, the United States, and Denmark. Children in joint physical custody reported significantly higher levels of life satisfaction than their counterparts in other types of non-intact families.
Controlling perceived family affluence, the difference between joint physical custody families and single mother or mother—stepfather families became non-significant. Difficulties in communicating with parents were strongly associated with lower life satisfaction but did not mediate the relation between family structure and life satisfaction. Children in the Nordic countries characterized by strong welfare systems reported significantly higher levels of life satisfaction in all living arrangements except in single-father households.
Differences in economic inequality between countries moderated the association between certain family structures, perceived family affluence, and life satisfaction Bjarnason et al. In the same sample, impaired communication with both mother and father was significantly less likely in joint physical custody than in other non-intact families.
Indeed, impaired communication with the mother was equally prevalent in intact families and joint physical custody families, while impaired communication with the father was in fact less prevalent in joint physical custody than intact families Bjarnason and Arnarsson, Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective well-being, family life, and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent.
The year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the year-olds to report similar well-being levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families. Other Swedish research shows that children with non-cohabitant parents experience more psychosomatic problems than those in nuclear families. Those in joint physical custody do, however, report better psychosomatic health than children living mostly or only with one parent Bergström et al.
Finally, I recall the Turunen paper published in : the data for this study were from the Surveys of Living Conditions ULF from tothe first years when the survey was accompanied by a child supplement. Like other recent studies of emotional outcomes of shared physical custody, this study observed that sharing residence equally after a parental union disruption may not be harmful for children.
Concluding note. The causal effect of shared parenting on general wellbeing is more controversial: differently from conflict and parental loss areas, in this field, it may be more difficult to distinguish between selection effect and causal effect of different parenting shared, sole, etc. There is much evidence of significant biomedical consequences of divorce on child health.
This issue indicates that this problem should be primarily faced not from a juridical but from a public health point of view. Unfortunately, in most countries, divorce involving minor children is still considered a simple family law problem, and in most European Union Member States, it is the Ministry of Justice and not Ministry for Childhood or for Health!
The definition of joint custody belongs to substantive family law. This explains why there may be differences in the national systems as regards the definition of joint custody and how it works in practice. The Commission is aware of differences in the national systems and diverging practices when it comes to granting and exercising these rights, where often cultural and societal aspects play an important role. It is nevertheless of the opinion that in decisions concerning children the primary consideration shall be the best interests of the individual child assessed on a case-by-case basis, in line with General Comment No 14 of the UN Committee on the rights of the child to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration.
In this context, the Commission does not intend to unify the definition of the best interests of the child. Official Question to European Commissioner for Justice, This review confirms that judgments of Family Courts can have a huge influence on human health as they have a huge influence on the probabilities of parental loss varied according different jurisprudences and other childhood adversities like inadequate parenting and long-term conflict.
The opinion of the author is that it is necessary to make practices more harmonized such as in the medical world where shared and common guidelines usually exist inside which the operator can work according to a case-by-case method.
The author would like to thank Prof. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Health Psychol Open v.
New approaches to divorce with children: A problem of public health
Health Psychol Open. Published online Nov Vittorio Carlo Vezzetti. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. ATS Insubria, Italy. Email: ti. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children.
Keywords: adolescence, children, community health promotion, divorce, family, inequalities, psychological distress, public health psychology, risk factors, risk reduction.
Introduction Science has demonstrated direct effects on infants and young adult health caused by childhood adversity. The definition of childhood adversity includes the following: Chronic stressors.
Knowledge on biological effects on animal models of health linked to parental separation We must not be surprised: we have in fact a lot of evidence in several species of animals of the organic effects of childhood adversity, especially parental loss and parental separation. Psychobiological effects on infant health linked to parental separation and other childhood adversities Although the most known effects of the divorce process are commonly evident in the behavioral and emotional fields, physical morbidity of the children was also described in situations of parental loss and often correlated childhood adversities.
Biological consequences of parental loss and other childhood adversities: latest knowledge By a more biological point of view, we have a lot of evidence too; for instance, Nicolson showed that cortisol levels in adult men are increased if in their childhood they were subject to parental loss or other adversities.
Is shared parenting preventive of childhood adversities and parental loss? Does it have a positive influence on well-being?
Improving children's health
Parental loss The preventive effect of shared parenting on parental loss is clear and indisputable. Conflict Extensive research has confirmed the positive effects of shared parenting on several issues correlated with childhood adversity like minimizing parental conflict and other trauma separation-correlated also if this aspect is more controversial.
That explains why the Conference of International Council on Shared Parenting in stated that shared parenting is recognized as the most effective means for both reducing high parental conflict and preventing first-time family violence, there is consensus that legal and psycho-social implementation of shared parenting as a presumption should proceed with the goal of reducing parental conflict after separation.
General well-being Concerning other childhood adversities and the best arrangements for children from separated couples, the outcomes of the scientific literature are represented by 74 comparative studies published in peer-reviewed papers or governmental reports between and The following four final conclusions were textually made: First, shared parenting was linked to a better outcome for children of all ages across a wide range of emotional, behavioral, and physical health measures.
The revolutionary dilemma: is divorce with minor children a juridical, a political or finally a public health problem? Angelilli: The definition of joint custody belongs to substantive family law. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Table 2. Figure 1. Conclusion This review confirms that judgments of Family Courts can have a huge influence on human health as they have a huge influence on the probabilities of parental loss varied according different jurisprudences and other childhood adversities like inadequate parenting and long-term conflict.
Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Prof. Molecular Psychiatry 4 : — Clinical Endocrinology 40 : — The European Journal of Public Health 23 1 : 3—8. Cerebral Cortex. Epub ahead of print 4 December DOI: Archives of General Psychiatry 66 1 : 64— In: Communication at international conference on shared parenting, Bonn, 9—11 December.
BMC Public Health 13 : Epub ahead of print 28 April DOI: Journal of Comparative Family Studies 4 6.
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The Lancet : — BMC Public Health 11 : Scandinavian Studies in Law. Adolescence 30 : — Psychosomatic Medicine 70 9 : — Demographic Research 28 : — Family Process 49 : 92— Berlin: Springer. Biological Psychiatry 68 10 : — Lupus 13 5 : — Family Relations 75 : — Obesity affects the immediate health of children and their quality of life. Obese children are very likely to remain obese as adults and are at risk of cardiovascular disease, among other chronic noncommunicable diseases.
Being an obese child also carries an important psychological and emotional burden.
The Gasol Foundation works to reduce childhood obesity through the promotion of 4 healthy pillars: sports and physical activity, healthy eating, quality of rest and emotional well-being. Data will be collected on the level of physical activity and health of more than 4, children, which will allow to establish lines of action in favor of child health according to the reality and the needs identified and benefit the entire population.
Obtain objective and representative data that allow to know the real situation in Spain about the level of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle of children between 8 and 16 years old.
To establish lines of action for children's health according to the reality and needs identified through the study, as well as placing the promotion of physical activity and sports in the epicenter of the political and social agenda as one of the key determinants to end the epidemic of childhood obesity. Ce site utilise des cookies. En savoir plus.
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