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Comme dans toutes les etudes qui s'occupent de la litterature et de la societe et qui doivent negocier avec differents niveaux de generalite concernant la litterature et la societe, cette communication s'occupe des phenomenes sociaux qui ne concernent pas la litterature directement, mais plutot par l'intermediaire des facteurs intellectuels et culturels specifiques. Madame Bakic -Miric montre simplement combien les contextes canadiens particuliers, le contexte economique et le contexte social, ont influence la lente integration des Chinois dans la societe canadienne, et pourquoi la communaute chinoise a pris beaucoup de temps pour creer sa propre litterature migrante au Canada.
II est evident que le monde moderne, et particulierement celui du Canada, n'est plus un endroit ou les nations puissent etre definies au moyen des criteres culturels et linguistiques fermes. C'est ce que confirme aussi l'article "The Importance of Teaching Culture in Bilingual Education Programs" de Jasmina Djordjevic, qui considere que la diversite culturelle doit avoir une place centrale dans des programmes de l'educationbilingue.
La relation entre la politique et la litterature etait une des consequenses les plus marquantes et les plus controverses auxquelles la conscience moderne a du se confronter. Darko Simovic l'a tres bien compris. Dans son texte "The Significance of Canadian Federalism", il s'engage dans une entreprise difficile et intellectuellement dangereuse que constitue 1'exploration du paysage canadien culturel, paysage plein de contradictions et de paradoxes.
Une de ces contradictions est definie par Simovic lui-meme, qui constate que l'objectif fondamental de sa communication est "de mettre l'accent sur le vrai sens du federalisme canadien". II considere que l'objectivite de son auteur est hors de question et que les prejuges ne peuvent etre attribues qu'aux ecrivains canadiens. Son interpretation est fondee sur les actes how to prevent pregnancy pigmentation les circonstances dans lesquelles le systeme federal est cree.
La nature du rapport entre le discours politique et le discours esthetique, qui caracterise l'axiologie de la culture canadienne, prete au questionnement identitaire une dimension particuliere: la notion de metissage s'inscrit dans l'ecriture sous differents aspects. Ces aspects font l'objet de la recherche de Petr Kylousek. Dans sa communication "Le metissage selon Jacques Ferron", il s'occupe surtout du roman Le Ciel de Quebec, considere tantot comme une epopee du pays, tantot comme un pamphlet, tantot comme un grand roman d'apprentissage.
Une relation plus complexe, et qui demande une approche interdisciplinaire, c'est la relation entre l'histoire et la litterature. Don Sparling aborde ce probleme dans son texte "Versions of History". L'histoire s'occupe du present, et c'est vrai d'autant plus que quand il s'agit des histoires nationales, qui sont au fond dans une large mesure normatives. Sparling examine cinq manuels qui traitent de l'histoire canadienne et qui ont ete utilises dans les hautes ecoles d'Ontario au cours d'un siecle, pour expliquer les differentes manieres dont ces manuels considerent l'insurrection de II choisit l'insurrection au Nord-Ouest pour presenter plusieurs images du Canada qu' elle a mises en oeuvre: les rapports franco-anglais, l'opposition entre les catholiques et les protestants, le role des peuples indigenes, l'antagonisme entre le Canada Central et l'Ouest; les images inspirees par plusieurs oeuvres d'art, de fiction et de poesie et, finallement, l'image de Louis Riel, figure la plus controverse dans l'histoire canadienne.
Deux auteurs s'engagent dans un autre debat qui concerne la relation entre le langage et la litterature: Biljana Misic-Ilic et Savka Blagojevic, dans leur communi- cation "The Self-image: Canada in its Words For the World", adoptent le point de vue linguistique pourrepondre a une des questions capitales: "Comment le Canada se peint-il lui-meme et quelle est l'image qu'il veut presenter au monde". Jovanovic adopte un point de vue semblable, dans son texte "Oryx And Crake: A Lexicotopia Translated", car il ne considere pas le monde romanesque de Margaret Atwood comme un monde de dystopie, mais comme un champ de recherche de la formation des mots.
Son examen aboutit a la conclusion que, a travers les images du Canada, se dessinent des relations etroites et vitales entre la linguistique et la litterature. L'examen du phenomene de la convergence structurale de la langue maternelle des immigrants serbes au Canada, consideree comme le resultat du contact entre les langues et les attitudes linguistiques, montre que cette convergence structurale est liee a la tendance d'une langue d'adopter la structure morphologique et syntactique d'une autre langue, pour devenir semblable a elle.
Les images du Canada, examinees dans ce volume, peuvent etre, en quelque sorte, reunies et resumees dans le langage theatral de Michael Devine. II montre son experience dans son texte intrigant "Past Present: BoxWhatBox And I Forget in Serbia", ou il y examine le revisionism e culturel et historique a travers le processus du changement de nos identites.
II emploie une methode appelee "BoxWhatBox", fondee sur la croyance que "les mots sont des signes culturels d'une grande envergure". Dans sa conclusion, Michael Devine nous offre encore plus: il nous demande "de trouver notre humanite commune dans un vocabulaire de 1'image, dans une semiotique de 1'emotion". Que ce soit le message de Michael Devine adresse au monde!
Introduction The aim of this conference is to explore the images of Canada from various per- spectives. As linguists, we set out to examine the image of Canada from a linguis- tic angle as well: we looked at the self-portrait of Canada, the ride closures drayton manor painted by words rather than by colours or lines. The initial assumption of our study was that the choice of words and their combinations, which we use to present ourselves to others are often as important as their meanings.
The universal studios florida upcoming rides which we analysed are the words of one of Canada's official voices - of the magazine Canada World View, published quarterly by Foreign Affairs Canada, in English and French, and distributed free of charge in printed and e-format.
The aim of the analysis was to answer the questions: how does Canada portray itself verbally and what is the image it wants to send to the world?
In our rather small-scale research we examined 15 issues of Canada World View, published betweenfocusing on all the headlines, subtitles, cap- tions and leads of the articles, rather than performing an extensive analysis of a few complete texts. We identified, classified and interpreted the most frequent vocabulary items and dominant grammatical features in order to examine how the official voice of Canada builds up the image it wants to invoke in the readers of the magazine and ultimately, in the international community in general.
At the very beginning it should be noted that our corpus belongs to the field of mass media discourse, which differs significantly from face-to-face discourse. There is a sharp distinction between producers and interpreters of mass media discourse. The text, i. Discourse producers obese belly flop 22 Biljana Misic-Ilic, Savka Blagojevic ercise power over consumers in that they have sole producing rights and can determine what is included and excluded and how the events are represented Fairclough Who are the producers in case of Canada World View?
Not its journalists or its editors, not even Foreign Affairs Canada, but, ultimately, the official political ideology of the state.
Theoretical framework The general theoretical and analytical framework for this study is the one pro- vided by Critical Discourse Analysis CDA Fairclougha,b,in the sense that we have tried to relate a particular form of texts to wider social and cultural structures, relations and processes. However, our study does not share the primary ideological aim of CDA of identifying socio-political inequali- ties that exist in society and, by exploring them, of providing a possibility for a change.
Critical Discourse analysts seek to reveal how texts are constructed so that par- ticular and potentially indoctrinating perspectives can be expressed delicately and covertly. Discourse, i. Discourse analysis has three lev- els: description of the formal properties of the textinterpretation the rela- tionship between the text and interactionand explanation the relationship between interaction and social context, the social determination of the processes of production and interpretation and their social effects.
In this paper, we primarily focused on the first stage, description, but we also included some aspects of the other two stages. It should be noted that although our analysis is based on Fairclough's model, it only uses it as a suggested direc- tion of investigation.
Linguistic description Our linguistic description of the text included the areas of vocabulary and gram- mar, identifying and interpreting relevant grammatical and semantic features of the texts. Vocabulary What kind of vocabulary is brought into play to create Canada's self-portrait? Generally speaking, these are mostly the words belonging to a neutral to formal style, especially the international ones. We found only a few instances of less formal, colloquial expression in the corpus, and they were used in a text about youth 'hot ticket'.
The Self-image: Canada in its Words for the World 23 Our analysis of the vocabulary focused primarily on nouns, and to a lesser extent on adjectives, since nominal words are particularly significant for revealing preva- lent notions and issues. Semantically, the nouns could be grouped into several categories, which could be considered as semantic fields: 1. Names of countries, regions, continents, as well as adjectives derived from them: Canada, Africa, Europe, America, Asia, the Middle East, many names of individual countries, world.
Names of international institutions: the UN, the EU. Nouns denoting universal human values, which can be taken as desired goals: humanity, human rights, prosperity, justice, peace-keeping, peace-build- ing, security.
It should be noted that the word justice was used in relation to an African country, and security in relation to Canada and some other countries and regions. It should be noted that some nouns are here given in prevalent collocations and that the last listed word, market, is rather rare. Nouns denoting negative aspects of a society: poverty, trafficking, terrorism, conflicts, refugee camps, troubled region, margins, marginalization, tsunami, disaster.
Nouns denoting relations: connectionslinks, ties, relations, friends metaphor for particular countries and their peoplepartner, partnership, growth, bridges, borders, boundaries, network. The last four words are used metaphorically, except borders, which was used both literally and metaphorically. Nouns denoting actions, states, attitudes: promotion, protection, contribu- tion, recognition, reform, recognition, support, challenge, engagement, de- velopment, implementation, perception, interdependence, responsibility, com- mitment, assistance, expertise, role, pride, influence, involvement.
The last one is rare and used only in collocation with Canada s and youth. We have not performed any statistical analysis; however, it can be noted that, except the expectedly most frequent noun Canada, its possessive form Canada's and the adjective Canadian, the other most frequent words seem to be the UN, culture, responsibility, development, diplomacy, opportunities, etc.
As for adjectives, we classified them, morphologically and semantically into sev- eral types: 24 Biljana Misic-Ilic, Savka Blagojevic 1.
Those derived from nouns, referring to institutions and social structures: eco- nomic, cultural, national, international.
When we examined their colloca- tions, it was noted that they most often collocate with nouns from the previous list denoting society and its parts and well as actions, states and attitudes, and relations e. Descriptive adjectives: new often collocating with countries, members, vision, approach, diplomatic arrangementsold collocating with friend sstrong, brighter, fresh, long These adjectives have a very broad, general meaning and can be used in very many different collocations.
Those denoting 'political', or 'social' issues, or used in such collocations: collective, multilateral, comprehensive, flexible, global, sustainable, diplo- matic, coordinated, humanitarian, changing with near synonyms less pre- dictable, unpredictable, collocating with world. These adjectives most often collocate with nouns denoting society and its parts. The other groups contain relatively few items, but are semantically interesting: 4. Adjectives used with positive future orientation: promising, changing, flour- ishing, renewed.
Adjectives denoting contrast: different, diverse. We have also found nouns derived from them, difference sdiversity. Adjectives with negative connotations: troubled region. This was the only one in the corpus, and obviously it referred to someone else, not Canada. The noted absence of adjectives with negative connotations, and their reference not to Canada coincides with the similar observation for nouns.
In Canada's pic- ture of itself, there seems to be no place for dark colours: 'negative words' are always used in relation to someone else. The most frequent adjective, again quite expectedly, is Canadian, which most often collocates with culture, policy, expertise, advantage The possessive form Canada s is even more frequent, used in similar collocations and many others denoting social institutions and actions: Canada's links, Canada's diplomats, Canada s contributions, Canada s competitiveness, etc.
A possible explanation is that the emphasis is on the state, not just the quality of 'Canadianness'. This implies and creates the image of a strong, powerful, committed and responsible state. We have not noted any of the so-called 'ideologically contested' words, which are usually identified in CDA studies.
If anything could be considered as having ideo- logical flavour, it could be the adjective international and the corresponding ad- verb internationally, which are used quite frequently, in contrast to the very few instances of the opposite term national.
In our analysis of the vocabulary we have also identified and examined the words that were used metaphorically. The two most frequent ones are the nouns bridges The Self-image: Canada in its Words for the World 25 and barriers, meaning 'connections' and 'obstacles', respectively. The former collocates with the verbs build and restore, whereas the latter collocates with the verb break down.
We have also noted several instances of metaphoric expressions derived from the underlying conceptual metaphors. Several countries are fre- quently referred to as friends, the US is sometimes referred to as big neighbour, and twice as cultural giant, whereas Canada itself is the model citizen. This cognitive metaphor also gives rise to a lot of personifications, in which Canada collocates with verbs such as plays a role, helps, promotes, establishes, enhances, shares The only metaphor we found which could be considered a literary, stylistic device is Canada and Mexico are two mice that together can roar.
It is a very prominent device, which makes this sentence stand out from the style of the analyzed text, and can be taken as an indication of both the awareness of the big, extremely powerful neighbour between them, but at the same time as an assertion of Canada's ambitions, in a very delicate way.
The most important feature here is agency, i. One of the most obvious grammatical features of the analyzed corpus is that the sentences are active, with the explicit grammatical subject.
Canadian culture pro- 1 - In the sense of Lakoff and Johnsonconceptual metaphors are part of our conventional thinking and everyday language. This broadly means using terms and lexis from one usually familiar, concrete semantic area to think and talk about some other areas. Some examples like these are also instances of nominalization. However, it is not a kind of nominalization used to mask the agency, because it is stated elsewhere in the sentence or context e.
We found, however, several instances of nominalization with very indirect, rather unclear agency, which could be taken as classic cases where 'nominalization is the indication of mystification of participants and time.
The few such examples in the corpus all refer to something unpleasant and negative. On the other hand, the much more numerous cases of direct and indirect yet rather clear agency could be taken as the indication of responsibility for one's actions and words, even pride in them.
The agency of the state of Canada is rather expressed in terms of its diplomacy, culture, government and the like, which may be the sign that the Canadian official voice does not want to sound boisterous and arrogant. Another analyzed grammatical feature was the sentence structure. The vast majority of the sentences in the corpus are declarative, affirmative, often not very complex. There are very few questions, imperatives, passives and hardly any modalized statements.
CDA literature considers unmodalized statements as adding to the authority, in this case of the official voice. In this way the information is presented in the form of unquestionable facts that appear to the reader to be true. The only modal verb that was noted several times was will, used for the future tense and even with present reference.
The effect of this strong modal force is the impression of certainty of the good outcome of the stated situation. The syntactic structure of the headlines also creates the impression of seriousness and authority. Unlike the so-called broken headline syntax of newspapers, especially tabloids, the headlines here are complete noun phrases, sometimes quite long, occasionally with gerunds. If the headline is a sentence, it is a complete sentence, in the present tense. The final issue in our linguistic analysis deals with the use of certain personal deictics.
The most significant is the use of the first person plural pronoun we, also in the form us and as the possessive adjective our. They are always used non- inclusively, i. Pronoun we and its corre- sponding forms always refer to Canada, the state, its institutions, and, less often, to Canadians. This implies that the official voice is telling the story about Canada only, not the others, the tone being one of self-awareness and pride.
Though many other countries and institutions are mentioned, stressing Canada's connections, responsibility, care and involvement in international cooperative processes, the absence of we that would include them as well, may create the effect of Canada's individualism, rather than 'collective sprit', as explicitly verbally proclaimed.
The Self-image: Canada in its Words for the World 27 have also noted a couple of impersonally used adjectives your meaning one's and just a single instance of you that could be both impersonal and inclusive.
Discussion The interpretation of the data obtained through the linguistic description has helped us to complete the self-portrait of Canada, which will be presented here only in its most prominent features: 1. The choice of relevant topics, reflected in the used nominal expressions nouns and adjectives emphatically favours the social side political, social and cultural issuesrather than, for instance, Canada's geography, nature and even economy.
There is an overall impression coming from two sources - from the use of neutral to formal style and from the syntactic structure of headlines, which contain complete noun phrases and sentences, that Canada's official voice tends to invoke certain seriousness and authority in its appeal to the readership.
This voice seems to respect the readership and expects the same in return. The choice of nouns and adjectives which are commonly attributed to Canada is often different from the ones related to the rest of the world: the nouns and adjectives with negative connotations poverty, terrorism, refugee camps, troubled regions, are almost exclusively related to the countries of 'the third world'.
This, however, does not mean that these countries are criticized - on the contrary, they are presented as the countries craving for help and support, which Canada seems to be ready and willing to offer.
On the other hand, the picture of Canada looks a little bit 'beautified': for example, the frequentuse of the word 'security' and 'secure', referring to Canada, implies that it wants to be presented as a safe place to live and work in; the place where the concept of'justice' goes without saying.
The metaphor 'Canada is the model citizen' is the best example of the self-pride and admiration for the country's achievements. Also, the words denoting universal human values humanity, prosperity, peace-building, piece-keeping, etc. It is deeply aware of the existing world problems and does not turn a blind eye to them.
The use of the pronoun we, which does not include either the readers or other countries, implies that the official voice is telling the story only about Canada, the tone being one of self-awareness and pride. However, although many other countries and institutions are mentioned while stressing Canada's connections, responsibility, care and involvement in international cooperative processes, the absence of we that would include them as well, may create the effect of Canada's individualism, rather than 'collective sprit', as explicitly verbally proclaimed.
Nevertheless, the tone which prevails is by no means presumptuous or arro- gant and this is mostly achieved by means of avoiding the direct subject Canada in case of which the agency will be overtly expressed. Instead, the possessive form Canada s, accompanied by words such as culture, diplomacy, efforts, policy, etc.
On the other hand, the absence of modal expressions indicates that it is still important to invoke authority among the readership, and thus to keep a desired balance, which seems to be one of the important features of the official voice of Canada. Conclusion Word by word, structure by structure, examining and arranging the data like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, we have attempted to complete the verbal self-portrait of Canada.
In its official voice, in its words for the world, Canada wants to show itself as a concerned, responsible and caring, but still an authoritative and proud member of the world. If this portrayed image creates any associations, it might be, or at least it seemed so to the authors, the one of the 'benevolent' giant, similar to one from fairy-tales. And who could resist such a gentle and caring giant? In: G. Cook, B. Seidlhofer, eds. Fairclough, Norman. Faricoulgh, Norman.
Media Discourse, London: Edward Arnold, b. Language and Power, 2nd edition, London: Longman, Being a text, myth is a device that serves to encode and decode. As it is a text used by writers, it has always relied on social sciences, while its presence within criticism means shifting the emphasis on the dynamics of creation and interpretation.
Still, this duality does not contradict the views about myth, its history, and its definition. Most scholars would agree that myth comes from an instinctive need of men to discover the secrets of nature and to understand the world. This effort to understand the world is in the core of every mythology. No matter where they originate: in China, Japan, Greece, Montenegro or Canada, all of them deal with the topics which are common to all humanity.
It is constantly being compared with the Sphinx, whose questions are impossible to answer. Mythology is also compared to the past, which has never become present. Being older than history, the beginnings of myth are impossible for us to identify.
Thus, we are forced to live in the shadow of that rich world which covers the whole universe. Still, we can identify its four relations: myth and truth, myth and ritual, myth and story and myth and language. Kirk, myth designates a field to such an extent that it can easily be replaced by the adjective 'mythic'. Literature and criticism are not synonymous entities, as Frye reminds us in his most authoritative works.
They enable the envisaging individual works governing, and encompassing all genres and culture-specific myths of a system or systems.
In The Great Code, Frye brings all modern criticism under the aegis of hermeneutics. This dislocation can be temporal as well as spatial. The literary poeticians must re-actualize mythical texts, i.
As myth presents itself to us, the novel may be the paramount genre because it records full criticism's predicament. How much poeticians have re-actualized mythical texts in Canadian literature is the crucial question which should be asked when the role of myth in Canadian literature is to be studied. The general purpose of this research is to give at least a relatively clear picture of the role of best bike rides nh in Canadian literature.
We can begin with studying its role in Aritha Van Herk's works. On the level of ancient mythology, she follows the story of Arachne. She tightly structures her novel around divergent layers of myth, even the myths of North Ameri- can Continent the car as an American success myth. Lutz and J. The authors put their emphasis on the fact that that in recent years Native novelists combine tribal narratives with Western literary forms p.
Myth, Canadian Literature, and Michael Ondaatje's Myth-making 31 Hawkeyethe fifth character, Coyote, and the sixth character the first-person narrator who helps tell everybody's story. The power of myth in this work can be identified through several tribal elements a cyclic lumière pulsée visage danger, oral tradition, a trickster, Coyote, and Native myths and legends.
Myth has much to do with morality, some authors claim. Socken shows in the paper. Mythical dimensions relate the novel to the tradition of world mythol- ogy. Their human frailty is part of their heroic nature. They are by no means failures but people who attain peace and harmony. While exploring myth in Canadian literature, an outstanding scholar, Patricia Morley asks the basic question: where does the myth touch us?
It also touches us through different literary traditions Classical, Canadian, Native, European. Still, its strongest manifestation is expressed through a combination of Canadian and universal. It is the place where myth shows "us to ourselves in a double glass, romantic and ironic". This author finds out that Munro combines the roles of Orpheus and Eurydice in her character Pauline. Munro devotes her entire story to developing musical allusions, emphasizing the unexpected effect of art on life.
She also emphasizes the powerful effect in an ironic intertextualization of the prefigured source. The relation of the Demeter and Persephone mythe to Manawaka women inspired two serious studies. Stevenson con- cludes that "in Jest of God Laurence's mythic imagination at once undergirds and outstrips the typically Canadian caution of the retrospective analysis".
It is Nancy Bailey who claims that myth allows Margaret Atwood's characters to "derive their universal and enduring power over our imaginations from myth in which their creator places them. The result of this study is reflected in the fact that "true animus figures will be found in primitive or pioneer societies more often than in the rich cultural but male-dominated European ones where Jung carried out his research. Van Spanckeren compares her with her former professor Northrop Frye.
Fairy tales and popular fiction's magical plots are powerful, irreducible sources in her early fiction. These works form a magical replica of the real world and shape its experience.
Atwood's early use of magic allows her to draw upon resonant symbolic traditions and suggest the important psychological truths they contain, concludes Van Spanckeren. Magic in Margaret Atwood's works, when explored from another point of view, shows that she is a fabulist. Throughout her works, Atwood has used numerous intertexts or texts within texts, myths, mythological motifs influenced by Grimm's fairy tales. This study concludes that Greek and Roman myth, the Demeter- Persephone myth, North American native folktales or legends, the Bible and other literary works may all incorporate folktale motifs.
Exploring the role of vampires, victims, the Great Mother myth, and Gothic allegory in Margaret Atwood's first unpublished novel, Judith McCombs finds out that this role is just a stage "where Atwood's paired, reflecting, poetic and allegoric structures, shaped by pre-novel archetypes from Northrop Frye's criticism, Robert Graves's White Goddess, James Reaney's poetry, andT.
Eliot's The Waste Land. Its adherents hope that the restoration of belief in such truth will lead to a cure of all ills of their time, claims Heinz 16 Nancy Bailey, "Margaret Laurence, Carl Jung and the Manawaka Women", Studies in Canadian Literature, Summer It is the truth connected to an ideology, concludes this author. She also sees her novels as "dyadic relationship between poles of transcendence and limitation in association with earth and world," concluding that "those who exist on the margin of a structure move through transgression of its codes and norms into an apprehension of the sacred".
The role of the artist is shamanistic. Rigney believes that Canadian tradition provides Margaret Atwood with images and archetypes which are poetically and novelistically intristic to her work, believes Rigney. Her heroines share a symbolic identity with Canada, and they affirm selfhood and power within the context of Canadian literary tradition. Rigney concludes that Atwood's heroines move from innocence to confrontation the way Canada as a nation must confront its political identity.
She reads the whole novel as a journey into the past from which its author wishes to bring back a society where a woman's authority was acknowledged and her role respected.
Diana and Venus, the white and red goddesses, are trapped inside the black goddess, while the Diana figure is shown as the prisoner of Hecate. In order to find the true self the main heroine has to accept her multiplicity, concludes Sciff-Zamaro.
Margaret Atwood herself deals with research on mythology. Her most crucial text for understanding the role of myth in Canadian literature is certainly the one on Wendigo.
She finds out that in longer narratives myths function in the way that ghosts function in literature it can be a manifestation of environment, it can have a message, or be a fragment of the protagonist's psyche.
Atwood concludes that the creature is "a victim of landscape". This implies a shift from history to the literary tradition. The move beyond history implies that a writer cannot achieve originality but is doomed to offer repetitions.
It comes out that myth is predicated as a form of language. The move also means that "in making use of myth postmodern writers may draw on the original ambiguity of the term, which could mean both 'fiction' and 'true' story.
Tschachler explores mythic structures in the Canadian postmodern fiction and finds out that Margaret Atwood's Surfacing reconstructs the "monomyth", but never "through a genuinely postmodernist reinterpretation. The real concerns of mythology have to do with the subjective autonomy of art and artist. What counts is form, "which becomes the outward sign of radicalized individualism".
This enables him to read the Canadian postmodern literature as a bond between myth and ideology. One of his results is his findings that Atwood neither dismisses myth altogether, nor does she replace it by another ideology.
Another conclusion by this author is that "Atwood's archetypal approaches to Surfacing do not approve Atwood's ambivalent attitude toward the idea of subjectivity. While myth looks back to the past, and the ritual, ideology looks to the future.
Both ideology and myth are motivated by binary oppositions. Myth, Canadian Literature, and Michael Ondaatje's Myth-making 35 literature, what matters is only the manner in which the tragic sense of crisis is being articulated, not the tragic sense itself. The psychoanalytic approach has been proven when the role of myth in Sheila Watson's short fiction was explored. Irvine arrives at a conclusion to Watson's "mythic cycle. She uses the double framework of postmodernism and postcolonialism in order to characterize what she calls the New World Myth.
This myth is created to suit particular needs, times, and places. Vautier shows that historico-political events thrive on provisionality, doubt, and cognitive instability to reflect continually upon their own making, and to collapse time and again the boundaries between myth, history, and fiction. This author also notices that classical myths play a smaller role than biblical myths.
New world myth is mainly interested in reconfiguring historical mythologies. Vautier also discusses challenges to biblical mythology, patriarchal structures, and official versions of the historico-political past. She also challenges magic realism and postcolonialism to history in some works of the above mentioned writers.
Vautier reads the New World Myth as texts that deal with the claims and certainties of traditional cosmogonies and myths. The role of postmodern myth and its relationship to post-European history, and to the figure of the Amerindian is another study by the same author. Most previous studies structuralism thematized the question of national identity, this author claims.
Poststructuralism and deconstruction, and the emergence of postmodernist and postcolonial theories and practices renewed interest in the question of national identities in Canadian literature writ- 36 Dean Irvine, "Oedipus and Anti-Oedipus, Myth and Counter-Myth: Sheila Watson's Short Fiction", in Dominant Impressions: Essays on the Canadian Short Story, Ed. The novels of the chosen authors investigate and destabilize the double problem of myth and national identities. They use their techniques as markers of postmodernist fiction while challenging history and historiography, and investigating self-referentiality, intertextuality, parody, irony and finding them to be "often contradictory retellings of the same event".
Vautier concludes that "by overtly displaying themselves and their texts as metafictional and historical constructs, the narrators of both novels foreground the concept that past reality is a construct and ultimately point to the fictional mythologizing of our history.
The myth he recognizes is "biblical, surreal, brief, imagistic". It is achieved by "a very careful use of echoes-or phrases and images. There is also light. Man becomes its pulse " He disappears into historical time and re-emerges in an echo". It was necessary for O'Hagan to establish the myth as a base of the book first to be able to turn to the role of story-tellers, concludes Ondaatje.
He also claims that the main character is given a new name in every setting finally leaving "just fragments of myth behind". The number seven plays a special role in this work: this book unfolds in seven notable installments. What is the same is with the association of Peter with his biblical namesake. Harding-Russel concludes that Ondaatje achieves a unique meaning because of the specific way of using mythology. His images serve to direct meaning from the literal and allegorical levels to an anagogical level.
On a literal level Ondaatje "provides us with a psychological drama of the beauty and the beast, on the allegorical level with a paradigm for the alienated artist in his society and, on an anagogical level, with a myth about the artist in his relations with reality at large.
These works also characterize the transgeneric nature of myth. In Coming Through Slaughter two myths are combined: "the romantic myth of the artist's encounter with the immediate and equally romantic myth of the musician's 'pact' with the devil.
This author defines it as a desire for a real contact, the desire to be touched which disguises itself "as a longing to touch, like Isaac or Saint Thomas, in order to make sure that something really exists, but also to make it exist, to make it come to life again.
His works are so alike, Clarke claims, that each is the best reference of the others. They form a canon. They mirror each other in the Old and New Testaments, and in the complete works of this author. Clarke equates myth and drama, concluding that "all literature is a metaphor of the first myth.
He employs the tension among different myths, and even from his work The Dainty Monsters to Secular Love, Ondaatje has transposed his perceptions into a canon that descants upon the dra- matic promiscuity of myth. In "Another Fashion" Ondaatje addresses the recurrence and violence of myth: We must build new myths to wind up the world, provoke new christs with our beautiful women, bring plumed this boned birds to claw carpets to betray maj esty in a sway Clarke concludes that "a prototype of the poem stresses the radical violence of mythical re-creation: We must provoke new christs with our beautiful women challenge them to a new mental war a new consideration Ondaatje liberally uses contrast-by-juxtaposition in many of his works in which myths address each in a verbal collage.
Thus, Monsters explores the spontaneous occurrence and re-occurrence of myth, its drama, violence, exorcism, and amorality. This work is a fictional history, "the fatal interplay between the opposing myths represented by Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett. This corpus of myth is resurrected to a "comic book excerpt that depicts a bizarre double: a Mexicanized Kid whose speech is a roman- ticization of cowboy-gunslinger lingo. Here the drama is the disjunctive between creation and destruction.
This metaphoric collision creates truth. It also shows the tendency of myth to absorb and transform its subject. Clarke recognizes the finest example of Ondaatje's use of myth in "Spider Blues". This is not the case with his work Coming Through Slaughter, which tries to translate reality into myth, life into art.
As the story develops the life of the main hero becomes a collection of myths. Ondaatje closes this novel with an archetypal confession of the origins of story in history and biography. Thus, the fictionalization of truth creates "the truth of fiction". Ondaatje's myth-making is continuous, reflexive and prophetic, concludes Clarke. It dramatizes the creation and dissolution of myths. His mythology comes out of chaos and mirrors the source of its genesis. The very act of creation issues order.
Still, "as a private mythology, Ondaatje's works employ the tenets of contemporary poetics, including the notion that principles are relative, that anarchy is order. Throughout his poetics, Ondaatje conveys the effects of producing myth, which are obviously dramatic. Then he dismembers the story, by removing and adding parts to it to create an electric and incomplete whole. He also includes the Colin Maclnnes version of the myth of Mrs.
Fraser as a kind of an epilogue which gives us the interpretation of his choice. Ondaatje was inspired by the theme in the work of Mrs. Fraser His deconstruction in the myth with seven toes uses myth material, physical bodies, and affects language as well. One more painting was an inspiration to him.
It was entitled Royal Hotel, and was painted by Sidney Nolan. It is not easy to accept the isolation and chaos Ondaatje makes through myth-manipulation in Canadian the man with seven toes.
It is not easy to believe that it speaks about Canadian society either. The truth it offers can only make readers uncomfortable. His voice is the voice of a dead and living person "capable of not only of self-description but also of re reading a context where he is the object of someone else's verbal act, and his discourse remains at the end of the poem powerful and evocative exactly because he is narratively dead.
York discusses its making and destroying and concludes that the "belief that distortion tells a more meaningful truth than the local records office informs the entire conception of Running in the Family as well as Coming Through Slaughter and The Collected Works of Billy the Kid.
Photography in Ondaatje's works can fix the sense of truth and liberate it at the same time, "by leading us not into history but beyond history".
The problem for the characters is "how to receive the narrative of this 'bogman from history' who tells them he wishes to 'erase his name and the place he had come from". He has three interlocutors who insist upon the responsibility of the writer and his function. Penner concludes that "one begins to see how Foucault's theory of unconfined discourse might have its harbinger in this text which has swollen to 'almost twice its original thickness' with various additions of the English patient.
The focus of Kella's study is on literary narratives "that critically construct styles of community in various degrees of tension with or opposition to national variants. It attests to a deep ambivalence about Western humanism, "displaying profoundly contradictory philosophical and political thrusts. At the end of this survey of the role of myth in the works of Canadian authors J. Chamberlain's conclusion on Ondaatje's poetry is worth quoting: Ondaatje is a curious position as a poet, but a position that is close to that of other contemporary poets writing out of situations that define essentially colonial predicaments, where language or audience or the identity and role of the poet are indeterminate Canada offers Ondaatje a geography, but no inheritance; Sri Lanka offers him a family history, but no tradition; the English language offers him both an importance and a history, but no time and place.
It is used on all levels. It comes from different traditions. It crossed cultural boundaries between Native culture and Euro-American and acts at a cultural intersection where relations between the two traditions meet. Myth challenges the traditional boundaries separating history, legend, and myth and poetry, fiction and biography.
Journée Albert Bures le 10 mars 2019
This research also shows that from the beginning of letters in Canada to present times, Canadian literature is densely populated with a host of oracles, diviners, magicians, and seers. They perform significant functions. We must not undermine the role of cannibalism both as a historical phenomenon and a literary construct, as the material of myth, and the material of fiction.
Finally, the effort of all those critics who try to link the literature written in a nation with what are considered distinctive characteristics of that nation - its language, geography, climate, race, history, myth, and folklore - has yielded excellent results.
The abundant presence of myth in the works of Canadian authors gives an opportunity for their classification and presentation through an index of mythological motifs which could be a proposal for future development of this topic. Bailey, Nancy. Barbour, Douglas. Michael Ondaatje. New York: Twayne Publishers, Carington, Ildiko de Papp. Clarke, George Elliott. Frye, N. Fables of Identity. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Anatomy of Criticism.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, The Great Code. New York: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich, Harding-Russell, Gillian. Huncheon, Linda. Sherill E. Irvine, Dean. Kamboureli, Smaro. Kella, Elizabeth. Kirk, G. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Lewis, Tayna. Studies in Canadian Literature 24, 2, Lutz, H.
McCombs, Judith. Morley, Patricia. Pavel, T. Penner, Tom. Rigney, Barbara Hill. Margaret Atwood. Macmillan Edition, Sciff-Zamaro, Roberta. Canadian Literature 12, Spring Sijakovic, Bogoljub. Mythos, Physis, Psyche. Paris: Plon, Socken, Paul G. European University Studies, Tschachler, Heinz.
Mirko Jurak, Tscachler, Heinz. VanSpanckeren, Kathrin. Vautier, Marie. Vukcevic, Radojka. Fokner i mil Podgorica: Univerzitet Crne Gore, Wilson, Sharon Rose. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, York M.